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Unit 2- The Enlightenment

Chapter 22
by

Teri Lina

on 12 July 2017

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Transcript of Unit 2- The Enlightenment

What was the ENLIGHTENMENT?
- A political, intellectual movement that stressed REASON, thought, and power of the individual
What is PHILOSOPHY?
- The study of general & fundamental
problems based on REASON.
Enlightened Despot
- Absolute rulers who ruled justly and made reforms
Absolutist who outlawed cruel punishments, declared all people equal under the law, and created small, representative govs.
The Scientific Revolution
Early Scientific Thought:

-
Based on the teachings of the CHURCH

-
GEOCENTRIC THEORY- Earth is the center of the universe
Secularism-

Worldly views that
are NON-RELIGIOUS
The Scientific Revolution was born in the
1500's
because of
EXPLORATION- which spread ideas
People of the Scientific Revolution
WHO?
wHAT?
wHEN?
nICOLAUS
cOPERNICUS
A polish
astronomer
Heliocentric Theory-
The SUN was the center
of the universe
Mid 1500's
**Was proven by Johannes Kepler
in 1601**
Galileo
Galilei
An Italian
Scientist
Used the TELESCOPE
to prove the Heliocentric
Theory and more
Early 1600's
Rene Descartes &
Francis Bacon
Scientists from
England and France
The Scientific
Method
Early 1600's
Isaac
Newton
English Scientist
LAW OF UNIVERSAL
GRAVITY- Theory of
Motion to explain the
solar system
1687
Results of the
Scientific Revolution
1. New Inventions- Microscope, Thermometer, Vaccinations

2. The first dissection of the human body

3. More SECULAR ways of thinking, thus, less dependency on the church
Where do we see Enlightenment ideas
in the united states & Constitution?

The Declaration of Independence
JOHN LOCKE (Philosopher)


Natural Rights- "Life, Liberty,
and Property
"
THOMAS JEFFERSON (Wrote the Declaration)

- All people deserve the rights to Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness
The United states Government-
FEDERAL SYSTEM: Power is divided between the state and federal government
The Bill of Rights:
Amendment #1- Freedom of Speech, religion,
assembly, press, petition assembly
Amendment # 6 & 7: Rights to a fair and speedy
trial by an impartial jury
Amendment # 8: No cruel punishment or
excessive fines
The Enlightenment
Define the Following:
*POLITICAL

*REASON
(Montesquieu)
(Voltaire)
(Beccaria)
(Beccaria)
Enlightenment Philosophers
:
Challenged the role of GOVERNMENT and the order of SOCIETY
1.) Were ANTI- autocratic rule
2.) People (the governed) are the source of power= DEMOCRACY!!!
Catherine the Great-
EX.
Full transcript