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IB History Schleswig Holstein
Transcript of IB History Schleswig Holstein
Part of the German Confederation
Wholly a Germany Duchy
In the north there was a large Danish population
Outside of the German Confederation
King of Denmark, Frederick VII, was also Duke of Schleswig and Holstein First Schleswig Holstein War 1848-1850
Danish wanted to incorporate Schleswig into Denmark and thus detach it from Holstein
Schleswig Holstein's German population that created an uprising in an effort to separate from Denmark and Prussia then pressured by other great powers to accept peace terms of the London Protocol 1852become closer to the German confederation
Prussia had a military intervention in support of the uprising and drove Danish troops out of Schleswig Holstein
London Protocol 1852
guaranteed integrity of Danish Monarchy
The Danish government promised not to tie Schleswig more closely to Denmark than to its sister duchy of Holstein Beginning of Conflict Separation of the two unacceptable
Century old tradition of being undivided
To some extent against London Protocol
1863 Denmark presents a constitution that would apply to Denmark and Schleswig.
Much criticism towards constitution as it violated some parts of the London Protocol
Danish King Frederick VII dies without an heir
Prince Christian of Sonderburg-Glucksburg, known as protocol prince as due to the protocol he was put on the throne
Duke Frederick of Augustenburg claimed to be the rightful duke of Schleswig and Holstein on the grounds that Danish constitution violated parts of the London Protocol. He also claimed the title because his father, Duke Christian August II, sold his rights to the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein to Denmark in the aftermath of the London Protocol, but later renounced his rights to the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein in favor of his son Frederick Augustenberg. Bismarck According to Edgar Feuchtwanger the eventual annexation of the two states by Prussia was not a result of a deep and well executed plan by Bismarck. He did though clearly know what results were undesirable
Creation of a new independent medium sized German State on the Prussian border was undesirable
German support of Augustenberg was to an extent revolutionary and needed to be controlled
Undesirable that Prussia be isolated from other great powers by fighting the German nationalism when it was not in its own interest
King Wilhelm I tempted and encouraged by Prussian Ambassador in France Count von der Glutz to support Augustenburg's claim in order to increase popularity Austria Despite tensions created by the Austrian plan to reform the German confederation and Prussia's refusal the two sides joined
Nationalism and Danish aspirations were too dangerous
Also dangerous to let international settlements be shoved to the side
Siding with Prussia though had risks
Would alienate them from German liberals and the national movement
Smaller states liked Austria more than Prussia but these states supported Augustenberg the most Bismarck Continued Hinted at helping Austria get back lost Italian territory but never fully committed himself
Reassured great powers especially GB that Danish Monarchy would keep its integrity and conflict would only go to the extent of supporting the London Protocol
He complicated legal necessities at the Frankfurt diet so Schleswig Holstein would not become and independent state Crisis Matures Christian IX refused to take away constitution
Support for Augustenberg reached its climax
Austria and Prussia then invaded Denmark The Second Schleswig War 1 February - 30 October 1864
First military encounter of the modernized Prussian army
Communication and transportation system in Denmark was old and inefficient
The 1864 Conference in London to resolve the problem ended, and no agreement was reached
Evacuation of Dannevirke - loss of moral and public opinion in Denmark
Battle of Dybbøl (7 April – 18 April 1864) - key battle and decisive German victory.
Battle of Als (29 June 1864) - the last major engagement of the war and a Prussian victory The Treaty of Vienna Signed on 30 October, 1864 by Austria and Prussia as the end of the Second Schleswig War
RESULTS: Prussia succeeded in permanently severing the Duchies form Denmark, kept foreign interference out, maintained close alliance with Austria, and had a good relation with both France and Russia
Austria refused Prussian annexation of Duchies, unless she received an increase of territory. If Austria did not offer the Duchies, neither would the Diet. The Prussian King refused to give up any territory.
Prussia would administer Schleswig and Austria would administer Holstein
Tension and disputes over the administration of the two provinces would lead to the Austo-Prussian war. Situation in the Duchies Confederate Troops still in Holstein, Augustenburg still in court, Austrian troops still occupying.
Confederate troupes expelled after Bismarck pointed out that Christian had ceased to have authority and therefore the execution must cease.
Rise of Mensdorf the new anti-Prussia Minister of Austria supports Augustenburg’s claim for an independent Confederate state1.
Prussia supported the Duke as long as he subordinated himself in all naval and military powers to Prussia (army swearing allegiance to the Prussian King rather than the Duke), surrendered Kiel for a war-harbor, gave control of the Kiel Canal, Rendsburgn would become a Prussian fortress, and Prussia would have control of the post, telegraph service and railways, and entered the Prussian Customs Union.
Ridiculous request that was not to be taken seriously.
Demands of the transfer of administration to Augustenburg denied by Prussia The Treaty of Gastein Summary: Austrian Emperor (Holstein) and Prussian King (Schleswig) were to be sovereign over the Duchies, both duchies were to be admitted to the Zollverein
Temporarily postponed final struggle between them for leadership over Germany
Joint administration led to dispute between the two powers -> Austria’s defeat in the Austro-Prussian war Articles of the agreement: Abandoning the shared administration of Schleswig and Holstein
Prussian control of Schleswig
Austrian control of Holstein
Prussian crown purchase of Lauenburg from Austria for 2.5 million Danish rigsdalers.
Prussian transit rights on military roads through Holstein to Schleswig
Prussian right to construct a canal and telegraph-line through Holstein to Schleswig
Setting up a Confederate Navy under Prussian control
Designating a headquarters for the Prussian navy at Kiel (Holstein)
Rendsburg was to be a Fortress of the German Confederation Results and Effects of the War First demonstration of Germany having the rightful claim to all lands that were German in culture and language
First step towards a "united Germany"
Increased power of the Hohenzollern family and Prussian supremacy in Europe
Led to the Austo-Prussian War
First demonstration of the power, strength, and efficiency of the newly modernized Prussian Army
Swedish and Norwegian refusal to provide troops to defend Denmark ended any form of political Scandinavianism
The 200,000 Danes living in ceded lands were eventually conscripted into the German army in WWI, and suffered grave causalities in the Western Front
Humiliation and total defeat led to Danish reluctance to face Germany in war, leading to the 'adjustment policy' and the cooperation policy' during the Nazi occupation in WWIII. Peace of Prague Peace of Prague of 1866 -> Prussia established as the only major powers in the German States
Confirmed Denmark’s cession of Schleswig and Holstein which were to be annexed by Prussia
Austria surrendered possession of Holstein
Both Duchies were to be admitted to the Zollverein, excluding Austria
Promised to hold a plebiscite to decide whether north Schleswig wished to return to Danish rule, a promise which was not fulfilled until 1920 by the Allied powers