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Daniel Gibson & Peter Russell

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peter russell

on 9 February 2010

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Transcript of Daniel Gibson & Peter Russell

Behavior Coloration Respritory System Body Shape Locomotion Digestion Feeding Nervous System Regualtion of
Internal Enviroment Respritory System Reproduction Shape is directly realted to a fish's lifestyle Fast Swimmer Fast swimers have streamline bodies Adapted to live on the bottom Lie flat on bottom Body shapes are useful for camoflauge Color is used for camoflauge Color pigments are
called chromatophores Fish Body Systems Many fish can change color
by contracting and expanding pigments Fish may use color to
advertise that they are
dangerous or poisonous Almost always sexual Both sexes must be
ready to spawn Reproduction is controlled
by sex hormomes A few fish are hermaphrodites
and able to reproduce on
their own For larva to spawn
breeding conditions
must be favorable Most fish fertalize their eggs
externally but some are internally Blood is less salty than sea water Fish absorb water to prevent dehydration Cartilaginous fish use their gills to
prevent the loss of urea By: Daniel and Peter They retain most of their urea in their blood Vertebrates have the most complex
nervous system The main part is the central nervous system Fish have a highly developed sense of smell Fish have a sense organ called the lateral line that
helps them detect movement in the water. Behavior is and important part of fish
reproduction Most fish do not reside in a
particular area in the sea Some fish live in schools or
large groups of similar fish Schooling is advantageous to
mating and feeding Fish swim to find food, escape from predators,
and find mates Myomeres are bands of muscles along the side of
the fish's body that contract and cause the fish to
move through the water Muscles like myomers take up more
than 75% of a fish's total body weight To compensate for the lack of a swim bladder,
sharks have stiff fins that act like the wings of a plane The pectoral fins in bony fish are used mostly for maneuverabililty. Some can hover and even swim backwards. The dorsal and anal fins are employed as rudders, at least part of the time to steer and provide stability. The paired pelvic fins help the fish to turn, balance, and "brake." The flexibility of their fins has allowed many bony fishes to depart from the standard undulating style of swimming. Some open water fish emphasize sheer speed. Most sharks are carnivores, but in contrast to typical carnivores, which capture smaller prey, some sharks feed by taking bites from prey larger than they are Several species of cartilaginous fishes are filter feeders:
the whale shark, the basking shark, etc. Mantas feed on plankton and small fishes, filtering them from
the water with their gill rakers. Most bony fish are carniverous. Some chase their
prey and others sit and wait for it. Carnivorous bony fish have well developed teeth for catching and holding prey. After fish swallow food, it passes through the pharynx and a short tube called the esophagus into the stomach. In the stomach digestion begins. It usually then passes into the intestine. The intestine secretes degestive enzymes. The liver also important in digestion because it breaks down fats. A few fish lack a stomach and tend to have a portion of the intestine expanded for the digestion of food. Carnivorous fishes have short, straight intestines. Fishes obtain oxygen dissolved in water and release carbon dioxide from their blood through paired gills. They must make sure that water flows over the gills, that is, they must irrigate, or ventilate, the gills. Expansion and contraction of the walls of the pharynx and the gill slits assist in the irrigation of gills in sharks. Every gill lies in its own chamber Most bony fishes have a more efficient mechanism to bring in water to the gills. The gills on each side share a common gill chmber. Fish obatain oxygen disolved in water and release carbon dioxide from their blood through paired gills Fish irrigate water over their gills to extract oxygen Expansion and contraction of the walls of the pharynx and the gill slits assist in the irrigation of gills in sharks. The first pair of gill slits of cartilaginous fishes is modified into spiracles, a pair of round openings just behind each eye. Most bony fishes have a more efficient mechanism to bring in water to the gills. The gills on each side share a common gill chamber, which opens to the outside though and opening on each side of the head. the df fgfg
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