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Yellow Fever 1936
Max Theiler Develops Yellow Fever Vaccine
Max Theiler developed a live attenuated vaccine for yellow fever using tissue cultures prepared from embryonated chicken eggs. Among the many subcultures of the yellow fever virus in the laboratory, the one designated “17D” was used, giving the vaccine its name. His results were published in 1937. The vaccine was easily adapted for mass production and became the universal standard. Treatment Prevention Symptoms History Vaccines Interesting Facts Citation Yellow fever was first introduced to the Americas in 1648 in Boston, Massachusetts. Yellow Fever originated in Africa, and then spread to South America, and then the Americas. 1900
U.S. Army Researchers Discover the Cause of Yellow Fever
Spurred by the massive yellow fever-related casualties in the Spanish-American War, members of the U.S. Army Yellow Fever Commission, headed by Walter Reed, traveled to Cuba to study the disease. Commission member Jesse Lazear (1866-1900) met Henry Rose Carter, a surgeon who had studied the incubation period of yellow fever. Carter gave Lazear a draft of a paper he’d authored defining the incubation period for the disease as a range of 10 to 17 days. Lazear reportedly stated that Carter’s dates, should they prove to be correct, suggested a living host for yellow fever. Determined to uncover the source of the illness, the Commission members visited Carlos Finlay and decided to test his theory of mosquito transmission. Jesse Lazear hatched Finlay’s mosquito eggs and let the mosquitoes feed on patients infected with yellow fever at a Havana hospital. The mosquitoes were then allowed to feed on study volunteers over a period of two weeks—yet no infections resulted. Two days later, however, Lazear once again allowed the mosquitoes to feed. This time, both of the men who were bitten fell ill. These experiments validated the theory Finlay had presented two decades earlier: mosquitoes (specifically, the Aedes aegypti variety) were the transmission vector of yellow fever. The researchers went on to rule out a bacterium as the disease agent. They determined that an infectious particle too small to be filtered with a standard bacterial filter was the source of the disease: the first human virus ever discovered. (German scientists had identified the virus that caused foot-and-mouth disease in animals in 1898.) Yellow Fever symptoms include the following: Irregular heart beat, bleeding, coma, deceased urination, delirium, fever, headache, yellow skin and eyes, muscle aches, red eyes, face, and tongue, seizures, and vomiting. With this long list of symptoms also comes with organ problems. These problems include: heart, liver, and kidney failure. Since there is no treatment for the virus, there is for the symptoms of the virus : Blood products for severe bleeding, Dialysis for kidney failure, Fluids through a vein.