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Sec 1 - Weather and Climate: Temperature

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Hui Yu Tan

on 2 August 2013

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Transcript of Sec 1 - Weather and Climate: Temperature

Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place over a short period of time.
Climate refers to the weather pattern of a place over a long period of time, usually 30 years or more.
The degree of hotness and coldness of air is called temperature.

Elements of weather
How does Earth
gets its temperature?
Why temperature varies throughout the day in a place?
Due to the Earth rotation on its axis, causing the Sun to 'rise' at the beginning of the day and 'set' in the evening.

Hence, temperature rises and falls as Earth rotates from West to East.
Why temperature varies from place to place during the same period of time?
Temperature is measured with a thermometer.
How to measure
Glass tube containing liquid, mercury or alcohol.
What happen when temperature increase/decrease?
When temperature increase, the liquid in glass tube expands and rises in the glass tube.
When temperature decrease, the liquid in glass tube contracts and falls in the glass tube.
records the movements of the liquid and gives a measurement of the temperature
Highest temperature reading for a day
measured using maximum thermometer
When temperature rises, mercury expands and metal index is pushed upwards.
When temperature falls, the mercury contracts, metal index remains in its position. so that we will know what is the highest temperature
Lowest temperature reading for a day
measured using
minimum thermometer
When temperature falls, alcohol contracts and drags the metal index down. The metal index remains where it is even if temperature rises later. Hence, we will know what is the lowest temperature of the day is.
Do you know why alcohol is used in minimum thermometers?
Freezing point:
1. Mercury - 39 degree celsius
2. Alcohol - -115 degree celsius
Magnet is used to rest both thermometers by moving the metal indexes back to their original position.
white wooden box with louvres to shelter thermometer from direct heat of the Sun and allow air circulation.
placed 1 metre above the ground so that thermometers are not affected by heat radiating from the ground
Degree Celsius
How to calculate temperature?
How to measure
Daily Maximum Temperature
Daily Minimum Temperature
Where is the best location to place the thermometers
Temperature varies at different places due to
1. Latitude
2. Altitude
Temperature varies at different time of the day due to
1. Earth rotation on its own axis
Try recording temperature yourself!
1. Main Atrium
2. Parade Square
3. Grass Patch outside the library
4. Sheltered Patch near side gate, behind D&T classroom
1. Leader
2. Time Keeper
3. Recorder
4. Handler
5. Handler
6. Safe Keeper
Air pressure gets lower as the altitude increase. The higher the pressure of any gas
-- like our air, for example -- the warmer it becomes.
the amount of rain that an area receives over a period of time
Why rain is important?
water is a main source in life.
What happens if there is a shortage of water supply?
People may die...
Unable to grow crops
= Drought = Famine
What happens if there is too much water? (Persistent rain)
How to measure rainfall?
Rain Gauge
Consists of funnel that collects and channels rainwater into a container.
rainwater collected in the container is emptied after 24 hours and measured using a measuring cylinder.
Rainfall is measured in:
millimetres (mm) /
Centimetres (cm)
represented in climographs
Placed in an open area where there are no obstructions
Prevent water collected on the roofs or leaves to drip into the rain gauge
Calculating Rainfall
Daily Rainfall
Monthly Rainfall
Annual Rainfall
Daily Rainfall
-amount of rain that falls over 24 hours
-measuring the amount of rainwater collected in rain gauge using a measuring cylinder.
Monthly Rainfall
-total amount of rainfall collected throughout the month
Annual Rainfall
-total amount of rainwater collected throughout the year.
Floods that damage property
Killing lives (drowning)
the movement of air over the surface of the Earth
Warm air rises,
cold air rushes in as wind.
Wind Direction
-direction that the wind is blowing from
Wind Vane
Where is a wind vane placed?
high, open place (rooftop)
--> Little obstruction
--> More visible

A wind vane shows the direction from which the wind is blowing.
Wind Rose
Indicates the number of days and the direction that the wind is blowing from.
Wind Rose
-may also tells us the direction of wind and wind speed.
Trying the questions given to you!!!
Stevenson screen
Daily Maximum and
daily minimum temperature
Calculating temperature
Full transcript