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Cloning ILP

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by

tom laslett

on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of Cloning ILP

Opinion
My opinion on the use of cloning in agriculture is that it is ok and farmers should be allowed to use some of these techniques to make our food better and more consistent. This is because there is no real way in which this could harm ourselves. Some people do not like the idea of their food being cloned because they think it will effect the food they eating. But it just makes our food more consistent and allows the farmers to make more money because all there products will be able to be sold on the shelves of the supermarkets. The supermarkets will mostly not take food produce that is not perfect, although the taste nutritional value is the same.
Cloning ILP
Fusion cell cloning
A developing embryo is taken from a pregnant animal at an early stage in her birth, before the embryo's cells have had time to become specialized. The cells are separated, grown in a laboratory, and then transplanted into different mothers. When the young ones are born, they are identical to each other. They are not identical to their mothers, this is because they contain different genetic information (the offspring's DNA comes from the original pregnant animal and the father). The most appropriate use for this would be in cattle or larger animals as the first method could be hard.
Cuttings
The easiest way to clone a plant involves cutting part of a branch. A branch from the parent plant is cut off, its lower leaves are removed, and the stem is planted in damp compost. Plant hormones are often used to encourage new roots to develop. The cutting is usually covered in a clear plastic bag at this point to keep it moist and warm. After a few weeks, new roots develop and a new plant is produced. The method is easy enough for most gardeners to do successfully.
Tissue culture
A different way of cloning plants is by tissue culture, which works not with cuttings but with tiny pieces from the parent plant. Sterile agar jelly with plant hormones and lots of nutrients is needed. What you do is grow the cuttings in the jelly so it is in a more controlled environment. This makes tissue culture more expensive and difficult to do than taking cuttings. This is why most normal people will use the cutting method instead.
Cloning Types
The four main types of cloning are
Fusion Cell
Embryo Transplant
Tissue Culture
Cuttings
Embryo Transplant
Fusion cell cloning is taking the nucleus of an unfertilized egg and swapping it with the nucleus from a different cell. The replacement nucleus sometimes comes from an embryo, but if it comes from an adult cell, then it is called adult cell cloning. This could be used in cloning sheep or any other agricultural animals. A good example is Dolly the Sheep.
In Animals
In Animals
In Plants
In Plants
Reference list
The two sources I used were:
http://www.rspca.org.uk/allaboutanimals/laboratory/biotechnology/clonedanimals
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel_pre_2011/genes/reproductionandcloningrev4.shtml
The basics of Cloning
Cloning involves taking or removing DNA (genetic information) and then placing that ,which is usually in the form of a nucleus, in a empty egg from another animal. This allows the DNA to not be mixed with any other therefore creating an exact copy of the animal that you took the DNA from. In normal pregnancy's two sets of DNA would be mixed but in cloning only one set is allowed to grow. In plants this happens by simply taking a part of the plant usually a branch and re-planting that into the soil.
Info taken from BBC Bitesize
Info taken from BBC Bitesize
Info taken from BBC Bitesize
Info taken from BBC Bitesize
Info taken from RSPCA
The RSPCA website maybe slightly bias towards stopping cloning as it is all against cruelty to animals and wants them to live and reproduce as they should or normally would. Whereas BBC Bitesize will be slightly less bias as it wants to tell you the facts only.
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