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Standard 4: Using Developmentally Effective Approaches

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Carrie Nepstad

on 18 November 2015

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Transcript of Standard 4: Using Developmentally Effective Approaches

4a. Understanding positive relationships and supportive interactions as the foundation of their work with young children
Early Childhood candidates demonstrate that they understand the theories and research that support
the importance of relationships and high-quality interactions in early education
. In their practice, they display warm, nurturing interactions with each child, communicating genuine liking for and interest in young children's activities and characteristics.

Throughout the years that children spend in early childhood settings, their successful learning is dependent not just on "instruction" but also on personal connections with important adults. Through these connections children develop not only academic skills but also positive learning dispositions and confidence as learners.
4b. Knowing and understanding effective strategies and tools for early education, including appropriate use of technology.
Early childhood professionals need
a broad repertoire of effective strategies and tools
to help young children learn and develop well. Candidates must ground their curriculum in a set of core approaches to teaching, that are supported by research and are closely linked to the processes of early development and learning. In a sense, those approaches are the curriculum for infants and toddlers although academic content can certainly be embedded in each of them. With preschool and early primary grade children, the relative weight and explicitness of subject matter or academic content become more evident in the curriculum, and yet the core approaches or strategies remain as a consistent framework.

Engaging conversations, thought-provoking questions, provision of materials, and spontaneous activities are all evident in candidates' repertoire of teaching skills.
4c. Using a broad

of developmentally appropriate teaching/learning approaches
Candidates demonstrate the essential dispositions to develop positive, respectful relationships with children whose cultures and languages may differ from their own, as well as with children who may have developmental delays, disabilities, or other learning challenges. In making the transition from family to a group context, very young children need continuity between the practices of family members and those used by professionals in the early childhood setting. Their feelings of safety and confidence depend on that continuity.

Candidates know the cultural practices and contexts of young children they teach, and they adapt practices as they continue to develop cultural competence, culturally relevant knowledge and skills.
4d. Reflecting on own practice to promote positive outcomes for each child
Early childhood professionals make decisions about their practice based on their developing expertise. They make professional judgements throughout each day based on knowledge of child development and learning, individual children, and the social and cultural contexts in which children live. From this knowledge base, effective teachers design activities, routines, interactions and curriculum for specific children and groups of children.

They consider both what to teach and how to teach, developing the habit of reflective, responsive and intentional practice to promote positive outcomes for each child.
Standard 4: Using Developmentally Effective Approaches
Standard FOUR
Candidates prepared in early childhood degree programs understand that teaching and learning with young children is a complex enterprise, and its details vary depending on children's ages, characteristics, and the settings within which teaching and learning occur. They understand and use positive relationships and supportive interactions as the foundation for their work with young children and families.

Candidates know, understand, and use a wide array of developmentally appropriate approaches, instructional strategies, and tools to connect with children and families and positively influence each child's development and learning.

Fostering oral language and communication
Drawing from a continuum of teaching strategies
Making the most of the environment, schedule and routines
Setting up all aspects of the indoor and outdoor environment
Environments that Inspire, full article
Focusing on children's individual characteristics, needs, and interests
Linking children's language and culture to the early childhood program
Supporting Cultural and Linguistic diversity in early childhood
Teaching through social interactions
Creating support for play
Addressing children's challenging behaviors
Supporting learning through technology
Using integrative approaches to curriculum
NAEYC publication Young Children dedicated an entire volume to integrative approaches to curriculum
All of these teaching approaches are effective across the early childhood age span. From the infant-toddler room to the early grades, young children are developing not only early language and reading skills but also the desire to communicate, read and write. They are developing not only early math and science skills and concepts but also the motivation to solve problems. They are developing empathy, sociability, friendships, self-concept and self-esteem.

Concept acquisition, reasoning, self-regulation, planning and organization, emotional understanding and empathy, sociability - development of all these is deeply entwined with early experiences in mathematics, language, literacy, science and social studies in the early education program. Children's development in the social, emotional and cognitive domains - developing independence, responsibility, self-regulation and cooperation - can be critical to success in the transition to school an the early grades.
Responsive teaching
Responsive teaching creates the conditions within which very young children can explore and learn about their world. The close attachments children develop with their teachers/caregivers, the expectations and beliefs that adults have about young children's capacities, and the warmth and responsiveness of adult-child interactions are powerful influences on positive developmental and educational outcomes.

How children expect to be treated and how they treat others is significantly shaped in the early childhood setting. Candidates in early childhood programs develop the capacity to build a caring community of learners in the early childhood setting.
Think: Consider Vivian Paley's book. How did she reflect on her own teaching practice in order to promote positive outcomes for each child? How can you be as reflective as she was in her book?
A teacher reads to a group of young children using dialogic reading practices. (running time: 3 min. 33 sec.)
Dialogic Reading

Designing the environment to build connection to place
Meeting the Sensory Needs of Young Children - this article gives you one example of how to focus on the individual characteristics, needs, and interests of young children.
Developing Young Children's Self-Regulation Through Everyday Experiences - this is another example of how to focus on individual needs of young children
Watch: Every child deserves a champion
This is not necessarily from an ECE perspective, but the emphasis on relationships really supports 4a.
Effective Teacher-child Interactions:
Using the CLASS assessment
Cooperative Games for preschool
Teaching moment: Getting along with others
The crucial role of play in early development
Blog post from
Teach Preschool.org
- this is a good example of a teacher reflecting on her own practice in terms of her use of technology in early childhood education
Check out the TEC Center from Erikson Institute. Sign up for newsletters and updates on free webinars about technology. http://teccenter.erikson.edu/
Reflective, responsive and intentional practice promote positive outcomes for each child
Visual Supports for Learning
Many languages One Teacher: Supporting Language and Literacy Development for Preschool Dual Language Learners
Capturing the attention of a preschooler
Teaching English Language Learners
Classroom Management

Read the article, "Teacher-child relationships and learning" from the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Usable Knowledge site.
Touch and Grow: Learning and Exploring using Tablets


Mathematical Patterns
The Power of Play: Segment 1 of 6. You can find the other segments on You Tube.
Read through the
Teach Preschool
blog post about play - this is such a good example of how a teacher can communicate the importance of play to families
21 strategies for guiding young children

Strategies for Positive Guidance
Children & Technology: the Right Balance?
Read this blog post from
Teach Preschool
- be sure to read to the end. How is she demonstrating responsive teaching in this post?
Thought-provoking questions
Provision of materials
Exploring Raindrops and Clouds
Spontaneous activities
Responding to children's ideas and interests: Intentional teaching
"Child care that does not adequately address the social and emotional needs of children runs the risk of contributing to the development and expression of challenging behaviors"
Intentional Teaching: Extending children's Ideas
Definition of "repertoire"
Fabulous Fingerplays
Overview of language development
Planning Transitions to prevent challenging behavior
Watch this 5-minute speech by Vivian Paley. What does she say is the most important aspect of the relationship between the teacher and the children?
Well-prepared early childhood teachers make purposeful use of various learning formats based on their understanding of children as individuals and as part of a group, and on alignment with important educational and developmental goals. A flexible, research-based repertoire of teaching/learning approaches to promote young children's development.

These include:
This brings us back to 4a!
Standards quoted directly from the NAEYC Standards for Professional Preparation (see link below).
Use of technology
connecting oral language to print
Engaging conversations
Teaching English Language Learners in Preschool
Connecting with diverse members of your community
Help linguistically diverse children be friends.
Full transcript