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Transcript of Classical Trade
600 BCE-600 CE
Eurasian Silk Roads
Established in the 1st century BCE by the Han Dynasty
Connected China with Southeast Asia, India, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe
Silk and Spices (like ginger) from China
Nutmeg and Cloves(spices) from SE Asia
Pepper from India
Horses from Central Asia
Olive oil, jewelry, and glassware from Europe
Syncretisms and Cross-Cultural
Greco-Buddhist art of the Bactria (Afghanistan) region
Xiongnu adopted Chinese agricultural techniques
Chinese adopted Xiongnu military techniques
Merchants in China and Rome
China- Confucians held merchants in low regard because they were viewed as self-serving and corrupt
Rome- Roman elites scorned trade as beneath them, but often made contracts with freedmen (their own former slaves) to front trade businesses for them.
At least as old as 1500 BCE
Trade increased significantly in the 3rd century CE when camels were introduced
Camels significantly increased trade across the Sahara
They can go a week or more without water and months without food
Important since the trans-Saharan caravans took 70-90 days to complete a trip across the desert
Desert oases provided rest and water along the route
Kola Nuts (stimulant)
Connected two other trade routes
Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean Trade Route
Trade in the Indian Ocean is thousands of years old (at least as far back as the Greeks)
During the Classical period, most Indian Ocean trading took place west of India between the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea
Trade greatly increased when Greeks discovered how to use the Monsoon winds
During one part of the year a ship could sale from the Eastern coast of Africa to the Western coast of India
During another part of the year, from Western India to East Africa
Long, thin hulls
primarily used to carry heavy cargo loads
Often paired with a lateen sail
Pepper from India
Luxury goods from Europe
Cotton from India
After the Fall of Rome
Route mainly used by Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia called Aksum (Axum) and by Persian traders of the Sassanid
By 600, most of the Indian Ocean trade was controlled by Persian and Arab merchants who traded between Western India and the Persian Gulf.
Major ports on all parts of the Sea
Carthage (Phoenician city on the northern coast of Africa
Major Link in the Silk Road
Connects land routes of Silk Roads with Europe through water