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AQA AS Chemistry - Unit 1

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Eliot Rintoul

on 1 March 2015

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Transcript of AQA AS Chemistry - Unit 1

AQA AS Chemistry
Unit 1
Atomic Structure
Amount of Substance
Intro to Organic Chemistry
You should be able to...
state the properties of the 3 subatomic particles
recognise where in the atom the subatomic particles are found
define the terms relative atomic mass and atomic number
define the term isotope
understand the basic steps in a mass spectrometer
calculate relative atomic mass from given mass spectrometer data
recognise that the mass spectrometer can be used to identify elements
know that electrons are found in main energy levels which in turn are made up of sub-shells which are made up of orbitals
recognise how electrons of the first 36 elements fill the sub-shells and orbitals
define the term ionisation energy
write equations to show ionisation energies
recognise how the trend in ionisation energies across period 3 and down group 2 gives information about atomic structure
relative atomic mass, Z = the sum of the protons and neutrons in an element
atomic (proton) number = the number of protons in an atom
isotope = a different form of the same element with the same number of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons
negatively charged plates are used in order to attract the positively charged ions in the sample
high-energy electrons are fired at the sample using an electron gun

the result is that the sample is ionised to become a positively charged ion (assume it has a charge of 1+)
electromagnets are used to deflect the cation as it passes through the vacuum inside the spectrometer

for a constant magnetic field, a lighter ion will be deflected more and a heavier ion will be deflected less (think a person throwing a table tennis ball and a tennis ball on a windy day)
when the ions hit the detector, they gain electrons ultimately causing a current to be created

the higher the number of ions that hit the detector, the greater the current
electrons are found "orbiting" the nucleus in main energy levels - think 2,8,8 from GCSE

these energy levels are split into sub-shells

the first main energy level has 1 sub-shell; the s sub-shell

the second has 2; the s and the p

the third has 3; s, p and d

each sub-shell contains a number of orbitals

s = 1 orbital
p = 3 orbitals
d = 5 orbitals

each orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons
- s sub-shell can hold 2 electrons
- p sub-shell can hold 6
- d sub-shell can hold 10
this diagram gives a visualisation of the main energy levels, sub-shells and orbitals
in this image, notice how the eletrons fill the sub-shells - it's like filling seats on a bus
the naming follows the order of the main energy shells, the sub-shells and the orbitals

the numbers tell you how many electrons are in each sub-shell
this image shows how the order that the electrons fill the sub-shells

the exception is that the 4s fills before the 3d

once the 3d is full, the 4p fills
first ionisation energy = the energy required to remove one electron from each atom in a mole of gaseous atoms
X > X+ + e-
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