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Chapter 2 Rizal
Transcript of Chapter 2 Rizal
is one of the
in the years after 1815,
which influenced the modern world tremendously
Democracy became a way of life in many European countries, like
Democracy was gradually established thru the following means:
-promulgation of laws that advance democracy
-undertaking of reforms thru legislation
-abolition of slavery; adoption of a liberal constitution
-providing the citizens the opportunity to propose laws
-adoption of manhood suffrage
-granting of political economic and social rights to the people
German, French, and English scientists were at the forefront of this revolution and abroad, explorers, archeologists, and anthropologists scoured all parts of the world for new discoveries
Unfortunately, however, Spain was at the backwater of this scientific upheaval and this was felt by
Rizal himself when he left the Philippines, feeling that his education in the colony was inadequate.
for more advanced studies in Germany and France to improve his competencies as a
In the Philippines, it caused
the displacement of the farmers
from their lands
To solve the evils created by the industrial system, different measures were proposed by concerned sectors of the world society (Doreen, 1991)
or government’s non-interference in the conduct of trade and business has to be sustained for the continuous expansion of the economy
invention of machines
and their use in manufacturing brought about significant changes in people’s lives
Some of the
brought about by this development include the following:
-The rise of the factory system
-Mass production of essential and non-essential goods
-Improvement of people’s standard of living
-Greater urbanization of society
-Beginnings of specialization or division of labor
-Invention of labor-saving devices
Many advancements happened during the 19th century and from this chapter, we should learn that there is always the positive and negative side of developments.
Optimism and confidence in progress can be gleaned from the achievements of men in the 19th century. Notable among these were the following (Capino, 1977):
-Extension of human rights to many people
-Promotion of higher education for men and women
-Education for nationalism in schools
-Investment in science to serve mankind
-Improvement of public health thru the establishment of numerous hospitals; and
-Emergence of realistic literature, depicting the life of the time
Western expansion had far-reaching consequences. For the first time in human history, the world became in many ways a single unit. Moreover, European expansion diffused the ideas and techniques of a highly developed civilization.
Yet, the West relied on force to conquer and rule and treated non-Western elites, armed with Western doctrines, gradually responded to Western Challenge.
They launched a national, anti-imperialist struggle for dignity, genuine independence, and modernization. Colonized peoples, therefore, started to assert their right to
or the right to choose the kind of government under which they would live.
In the 19th century, the industrializing West entered the third and most dynamic phase of its centuries-old expansion into non-Western lands. In doing so, these Western nations profitably subordinated those lands to their economic interests, sent forth millions of immigrants, and political influence in Asia and vast political empires in Africa.
The reasons for this culminating surge were many, but the economic thrust of robust industrial capitalism an ever-growing lead in technology, and the competitive pressures of European nationalism were particularly important.
Effects of science revolution spilled to the challenging of traditional beliefs in religion and politics.
A belief emerged that the Church is not the sole source of knowledge but everyone can be capable of achieving knowledge and challenging the old established belief as long as this could be scientifically explained, replicated and validated.
The scientific revolution gained headway in Western European countries like Germany, France, and England, which became centers of learning in the 19th century.
Triumph of science and technology’s
3 significant consequences:
-Everyday experience and innumerable scientists impressed the
importance of science on the mind
of ordinary citizens.
-Philosophical implications of science spread to broad sections of the population.
led the people to develop optimistic faith in man’s capability to achieve progress.
-Methods of science
acquired unrivaled prestige after 1850. For many, the union of careful experiment and abstract theory was the only route to truth and objective reality.
-The result was an explosive growth of
were increasingly of better scientific knowledge into practical benefits was evident in
-is the expansion of scientific knowledge
-and the Age of Enlightenment
were challenged by the principle that
everything could be explained by reason
-This resulted in the development of the scientific method
the government has to control
vital industries and resources. This is necessary in promoting equality of opportunity and people’s welfare in society
on the other hand suggests that all factors of production
by the government
. Equality in society can be achieved if social classes are destroyed and dictatorship of the proletariat (masses) is established
calls for humane treatment
of workers, respect for worker’s rights, and social justice for the poor
-Beginnings of individual capitalism
-Fostering of liberalism and nationalism
-Encouragement of people’s mobility
There were also
which are as follows:
-Widening of the gap between the rich and the poor
-Unending economic warfare between labor and capital
-Pollution and other environmental problems
-Beginning of child and women labor
-Intensification of imperialistic rivalry between and among industrialized countries
One of the most crucial developments in the 19th century was the
(Stearns et al, 1991)
The Industrial Revolution refers to the transformation of manufacturing brought about by the invention and use of machines
This development started in
and later into
, and even the
Liberalism demanded representative government as opposed to autocratic monarchy, equality before the law as opposed to legally separate classes
The idea of
liberty also meant specific individual freedoms:
freedom of the press;
freedom of speech;
freedom of assembly;
and freedom of arbitrary arrest
While nationalism can foster national unity, progress, and independence,
it also has a negative side
The ideas of national superiority and national mission can lead to aggressive crusades and counter-crusades
It can also stress
differences among people
The development of nationalism in the Philippines
was very slow
. Loyalty to the nation
only began after the unjust execution of the GOMBURZA on February 17, 1872
The rise of the spread of LIBERALISM and DEMOCRACY was actually a consequence of the growth and development of nationalism (Black, 1999)
Liberalism’s principal ideas:
LIBERTY and EQUALITY
were first realized successfully in the American Revolution and then achieved in part in the French Revolution
3 points that stand out in Nationalism
-It has evolved from a real or imagined cultural unity, manifesting itself in a common
-Nationalists have usually sought to turn this cultural unity into political reality so that territory of each people coincides with its
-Nationalists believed that every nation has
the right to exist
in freedom and develop its character and spirit
McKay et al, 1995
is a sense of loyalty or psychological attachment that members of a nation share, based on a common language, history, culture, and desire for independence (Jackson & Jackson, 2000)
It is a feeling that drives people together as a nation.
It is love of country expressed in devotion to advocacy of national interest and independence
Growth and Development of Nationalism
The 19th Century World
of Jose Rizal
Rise and Gradual Spread of Liberalism and Democracy
The Industrial Revolution
The Advancement of Science
Resurgence of Western Imperialism
Optimism and Confidence in Progress
The growth of nationalism can be attributed to two major revolutions of their century:
American Revolution of 1776
(gave birth to the
United States of America)
French Revolution of 1789
(led to the overthrowing of the absolute rule of the
Bourbon Dynasty and the
abolition of the feudal system)
of the GOMBURZA
Optimism or faith in society and man’s ability to progress was brought about by the advancement of science, the coming of steam-powered industry, an the spread of liberalism and socialism (Chodorow et al, 1994)
optimism of the century was summed by Marquis de Condorcet in his work, Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind.
He saw that
“the strongest for believing that nature has set no limit to the realization of our hopes”
“the abolition of inequality between nations, the progress of equality within nations, and the true perfection of humanity. Progress was now independent of any power that might wish to halt it and it will never be reversed.”
Marquis de Condorcet