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Poetry Terms

Definitions and examples of the elements of figurative language
by

Julie Lucash

on 8 February 2016

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Transcript of Poetry Terms

Figurative Language
alliteration
onomatopoeia
hyperbole
personification
simile
metaphor
what's do you notice about the sounds in this clip?
how about this clip?
did you ever think that there were that many words that began with the letter V ?
Alliteration
:
The use of the same sound or letter at the beginning of words in a sentence or poem.

let's focus in with some examples of SOUND
and now our next example
How about this clip?
These were examples of ONOMATOPOEIA
Definition:
Words that recreate a sound.

Examples of
HYPERBOLE

Definition:
an obvious and intentional
exaggeration
[prefix “hyper” = excessive]
An artist inspired by ONOMATOPOEIA
Definition:
A way of comparing two things by using the words LIKE and AS
Let's check out an example from a song
UNDERLINE the examples of SIMILE
Here's a song by the BEST BAND EVER!
(It's not HYPERBOLE, it's the truth!)

UNDERLINE the examples of SIMILE
Definition:
A way of comparing two things by stating that one thing IS the other.

(Does not use the words “like” or “as”)

A metaphor can be:
A comparison of two things
A statement that one thing is the other
An indirect suggestion of a similarity

Definition:
To give human qualities, feelings, & abilities to non-human objects
"Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds"

Picture yourself in a boat on a river
With tangerine trees and marmalade skies
Somebody calls you, you answer quite slowly
A girl with kaleidoscope eyes

Cellophane flowers of yellow and green
Towering over your head
Look for the girl with the sun in her eyes
And she's gone

Lucy in the sky with diamonds
Lucy in the sky with diamonds
Where rocking horse people eat marshmellow pies
Everyone smiles as you drift past the flowers
That grow so incredibly high

Newpaper taxis appear on the shore
Waiting to take you away
Climb in the back with your head in the clouds
And you're gone
POETRY FORM


FORM
:
the structure and organization of the poem

LINE
:
a group of words together on one line of the poem
the
sentence
of a poem (10 here)

STANZA
:
a group of lines arranged together as a unit
the
paragraph
of a poem (5 here)

COUPLET
:
two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme (5 here)


One of the three major types of literature
Highly concise, musical and emotionally charged language by using
figurative language
and
sound devices


What is poetry?
What is Poetry?

A feeling created by a poem
that a reader experiences
Mood:

=The speaker's attitude toward the subject of the poem
-How the speaker feels

=Tone must be inferred through the use of descriptive words



Tone:

Words have the power to create emotions or evoke memories in readers

If poet's want to suggest a specific emotion in a poem, they choose words that are associated with that emotion.

Why is connotation important when studying & writing poetry?

EXAMPLE: SNAKE
The
denotation
of the word snake is “any of numerous scaly, legless, and sometimes venomous reptiles”
The
connotations
for the word snake could include evil or danger.
Another connotation for snake could imply a sneaky, untrustworthy person.

Introduction to Poetry
By: Billy Collins

I ask them to take a poem
and hold it up to the light
like a color slide

or press an ear against its hive.

I say drop a mouse into a poem
and watch him probe his way out,

or walk inside the poem's room
and feel the walls for a light switch.

I want them to water ski
across the surface of a poem
waving at the author's name on the shore.

But all they want to do
is tie the poem to a chair with rope
and torture a confession out of it.

They begin beating it with a hose
to find out what it really means.

Connotation

The
denotative
definition is based on the literal definition of the word.







The
connotative
definition is the figurative or emotional meaning of a word.

A word is dead
When it is said,
Some say.

I say it just
Begins to live
That day.

How many lines does this poem have?

How many stanzas are in this poem?

Are there any couplets?

POETRY FORM


SPEAKER
The imaginary voice a poet uses when writing a poem.

The speaker of the poem is the “narrator” of the poem.


POET

The poet is the author of the poem.

POINT OF VIEW IN POETRY

Poetry is a form of literary art.
Poetry expresses feelings.
Poetry is written in lines and stanzas.
Poetry can sometimes rhyme.
Poetry teaches morals.
Poetry is similar to short stories.
Poetry is usually short forms of writing.
Poetry uses figurative language.
Poetry uses sound devices.

What is Poetry?

Poets are aware of the fact that words carry deeper meanings than those found in a dictionary.

Words have the power to create emotions or evoke memories in readers

As a writer, you need to be aware of the fact that certain words have stronger connotations than others.

If you want to suggest a specific emotion in a poem, choose words that are associated with that emotion.

Why is connotation important when studying & writing poetry?

Repetition is the use (more than once) of any element of a language – a sound, word, phrase, or sentence.

What is repetition?

A fourteen line poem with a specific rhyme scheme.
10 syllables per line

Purpose: often to praise

English (Shakespearean) Sonnet is written in three quatrains and ends with a couplet.

The rhyme scheme is
abab cdcd efef gg
(quatrain quatrain quatrain couplet)

LYRIC: Sonnet

Repetition of internal vowel sounds of words close together in poetry.

Example: I made my way to the lake.

What is assonance?

Rhyme that occurs within the same line
Example: Now Sam McGee was from Tennessee


Internal Rhyme

Consonant = all the letters in the ABC’s EXCEPT the vowels (a,e,i,o,u)
Repetition of internal or ending consonant sounds of words close together in poetry.

Example: I dropped the locket in the thick mud.


What is consonance?

A formal poem that reflects on death or another solemn theme
Purpose: Usually to memorialize a person or reflect on a subject

LYRIC: Elegy

The beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem

Rhythm can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and repetition.

RHYTHM

The Germ by Ogden Nash

A mighty creature is the germ,
Though smaller than the pachyderm.
His customary dwelling place
Is deep within the human race.
His childish pride he often pleases
By giving people strange diseases.
Do you, my poppet, feel infirm?
You probably contain a germ.

SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME

A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always).


Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually “see” the pattern. (See next slide for an example.)

RHYME SCHEME

LAMP
STAMP

Share the short “a” vowel sound
Share the combined “mp” consonant sound


Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds.


(A word always rhymes with itself.)

RHYME

“Fog”
by Carl Sandburg

The fog comes
on little cat feet.

It sits looking
over harbor and city
on silent haunches
and then moves on.

FREE VERSE POETRY EXAMPLE

Imagery is language that appeals to the five senses.
Images help to re-create experiences vividly and add to a reader’s enjoyment of what is described.

What is imagery?

An allusion refers to something with which the reader is likely to be familiar, such as a person, place, or event from history

What is an Allusion?

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer’s lease hath all too short a date.
Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed;
And every fair from fair sometimes declines,
By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed.
But thy eternal summer shall not fade
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st;
Nor shall Death brag thou wanderest in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st

So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

A
B
A
B
C
D
C
D
E
F
E
F

G
G


LYRIC: Sonnet

A formal lyric poem with a unified strain of exalted verse dealing with a single purpose and a single theme.
Purpose: Usually celebrates the subject or object

LYRIC: Ode

In concrete poems, the words are arranged to create a picture that relates to the content of the poem.

CONCRETE POEMS

Free verse poetry is very conversational - sounds like someone talking with you.

A more modern type of poetry.

A poem not written in a regular rhythmical pattern or meter

Does NOT have rhyme.

FREE VERSE POETRY

Poetry verse that expresses a poet's thoughts and feelings about a single image or idea.
Written in musical language.

Lyric Poetry

Poetry
Is like
Flames,
Which are
Swift and elusive
Dodging realization
Sparks, like words on the
Paper, leap and dance in the
Flickering firelight. The fiery
Tongues, formless and shifting
Shapes, tease the imagination.
Yet for those who see,
Through their mind’s
Eye, they burn
Up the page.


EXAMPLES:


CONCRETE POEMS

Repetition of internal or end vowel sounds (a,e,i,o,u) of
words close together in poetry.

Example:
Assonance
The beat created by the
sounds of the words in a poem

Rhythm can be created by meter,
rhyme, alliteration and repetition.

RHYTHM

A rhyme scheme is a pattern of end rhyme in a poem

Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually “see” the pattern.
RHYME SCHEME

Repetition is the repeated use of any element of a language a sound, word, phrase, or sentence.

Repetition

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer’s lease hath all too short a date.
Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed;
And every fair from fair sometimes declines,
By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed.
But thy eternal summer shall not fade
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st;
Nor shall Death brag thou wanderest in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st

So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

A
B
A
B
C
D
C
D
E
F
E
F

G
G


LYRIC: Sonnet

A fourteen line poem with a specific rhyme scheme.
10 syllables per line

Purpose: often to praise

English (Shakespearean) Sonnet is written in three quatrains and ends with a couplet.

The rhyme scheme is
abab cdcd efef gg
(quatrain quatrain quatrain couplet)

LYRIC Poem: Sonnet

Consonance
Consonant = all the letters in the ABC’s EXCEPT the vowels (a,e,i,o,u)

Repetition of internal or ending consonant sounds of words close together in poetry.

Example:

Do no
t
go gen
t
le in
t
o tha
t
good nigh
t
A formal poem that reflects on
death or another solemn theme

Purpose: Usually to memorialize
a person or reflect on a subject

LYRIC: Elegy

Poetry verse that expresses a poet's thoughts and feelings bout a single image or idea.

Written in musical language.

Lyric Poetry

Rhyme that occurs within the same line of a poem



Internal Rhyme

LAMP
STAMP

Share the short “a” vowel sound
Share the combined “mp” consonant sound


Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds.


(A word always rhymes with itself.)

RHYME

An allusion refers to something with
which the reader is likely to be familiar, such
as a person, place, or event from history

What is an Allusion?

A formal lyric poem with a unified strain of exalted verse dealing with a single purpose and a single theme.

Purpose: Usually celebrates the subject or object

LYRIC: Ode

CONCRETE POEMS

In concrete poems, the words are arranged to create a picture that relates to the content of the poem.

CONCRETE POEMS

“Fog”
by Carl Sandburg

The fog comes
on little cat feet.

It sits looking
over harbor and city
on silent haunches
and then moves on.

FREE VERSE POETRY EXAMPLE

Free verse poetry is very conversational -
sounds like someone talking with you.

A more modern type of poetry.

A poem not written in a regular
rhythmical pattern or meter

Does NOT have rhyme.

FREE VERSE POETRY

Imagery is language that appeals to the five senses.

Images help to re-create experiences vividly and add to a reader’s enjoyment of what is described.

What is imagery?

Poetry Terms
What is narrative
poetry?

poetry that tells a story
has plot, characters, & a setting
unlike narrative prose, it uses sound devices
Ready for a quiz???
From B.O.B.'s "Magic":
"every time I touch that track/it turns into gold"
"You know I'm no Pinocchio, I never told a lie"
What is an idiom?
A set expression that means something other than the literal meanings of its individual words
Stabbed in the back:
When someone betrays your trust/ turns on you.

Common idiom examples & meanings:

Head Over Heels
:
Very excited and/or joyful, especially when in love.


Raining Cats and Dogs
:
A very loud and noisy rain storm.

Sound Devices
On your sheet, mark the following:
How many
lines
stanzas
couplets
Mark the rhyme scheme
End Rhyme
rhyme that occurs in the final syllables of 2 or more lines
The emotional associations of a word or phrase,
as opposed to its exact meaning.

“Greasy” has a denotation meaning slippery but also has a connotation when referring to a “greasy” person.


Practice Poem Form
Mood:
Feelings in a Poem
=The overall feeling created by the poem (atmosphere created)

=Analyze the tone, setting, & theme to reveal the mood
CONNOTATION CREATES TONE & MOOD
Connotation is often associated with...
What is figurative language?

"Its fleece was white as snow"
is an example of a figurative language from a children's rhyme. In this case, comparing the lamb's fleece to snow helps create a picture of how white Mary's lamb really was.
a word or phrase that departs from everyday literal language for the sake of comparison, emphasis, clarity, or freshness

St
e
m
e
nd and blossom
e
nd,
And
e
very fl
e
ck of russ
e
t showing clear
Repetition in "Annabel Lee"
Repeated lines:

"kingdom by the sea"
"my beautiful Annabel Lee"
Can you find alliteration in "Annabel Lee"?
Alliteration in "Annabel Lee"
"So that
h
er
h
ighborn
k
insmen
c
ame"

"Of those
w
ho
w
ere older than
w
e—
Of many far
w
iser than
w
e—
And neither the angels in Heaven above
Nor the
d
emons
d
own under the sea
Can ever
d
issever my soul from the soul"

Find consonance in the 3rd stanza of "AL"
Consonance in "Annabel Lee"
And thi
s
wa
s
the rea
s
on that, long ago,
In thi
s
kingdom by the sea,
A wind blew out of a cloud, chilling
My beautifu
l
Annabe
l
Lee;
So that he
r
highbo
r
n
kinsme
n
came
And bo
r
e he
r
away from me,
To shut he
r
up in a sepulch
r
e
In this kingdom by the sea.

Find assonance in the last stanza of "AL"
Assonance in "Annabel Lee"
For the moon never beams, without bringing me dreams
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;
And the stars never r
i
se, but
I
feel the br
i
ght
ey
es
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;
And so, all the n
i
ght-t
i
de,
I
l
i
e down by the s
i
de
Of m
y
darling—m
y
darling—m
y
l
i
fe and m
y
br
i
de,
In her sepulchre there by the sea—
In her tomb by the sounding sea.

Find it in "AL"
We will learn the definitions of sound devices, look at examples & then find & label examples in "Annabel Lee."
Full transcript