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Keystone Biology

on 20 October 2016

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Transcript of Ecology

Ecology Reading
Please click the following link and watch the video and interactive.

Ecosystems have both
living components (biotic factors
such as the trees, birds, and fish) and
nonliving components (abiotic factors
such as how much rain or sun an area gets). All ecosystems need energy, and the most basic form of energy comes from the sun.
(also known as autotrophs) are able to make their own food. These are eaten by
(also known as heterotrophs). We can track the flow of energy linearly using a
food chain
or look at a more detailed flow of energy using a
food web

Energy Pyramid
A model that illustrates the biomass productivity and multiple trophic levels in a given ecosystem.
Make their own energy

Primary Consumer/herbivores
Consumers that eat producers

Secondary Consumers/ omivore or carnivoire:
that eat primary consumers

Tertiary Consumers/ / omivore or carnivoire:
: Consumers that eat
Secondary consumers

Biotic Interactions
When individual organisms compete for similar resources such as food, territory, and mates.

An ecological relationship in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism.

Populations of different species living together in close proximity.

Both organisms benefit from relationship
Example: sea anemone and clown fish

One organism benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed from the relationship
Example: barnacles on whales

One organism benefits and one is harmed from the relationship
Example: dog and tick
Take Ecology Prezi assessment in BUZZ.
Nonnative Species
A species normally living outside the distribution range that has been introduced by either deliberate or accidental human activities:

also known as introduced, invasive, alien, nonindigenous, or exotic.

Examples of Nonnative Species in PA
Stink Bug:
Native to China, Japan, and Taiwan
No natural predators
Causes damage to crops
Zebra Mussel:
Native to Eastern Europe and Russia
No natural predators
Competing with other mussels, and effecting the ecosystem.
A series of predictable and orderly changes in an ecosystem over time

consume dead plants and animals and break them down.
Global Warming
Global warming is caused by the
Greenhouse Effect
. Earth's atmosphere behaves like a gigantic greenhouse, as the sun shines down, some of the energy from the sun's rays are trapped as heat by gases in the atmosphere including carbon dioxide and methane. Some of this heat energy radiates back out toward space but some is reflected back down to Earth, effectively trapping heat and keeping the planet about 33 degrees hotter than it would otherwise be.
This is called the natural greenhouse effect and it's a good thing. Without it, Earth would be much too cold to support the huge diversity of life that it does. However, the more greenhouse gases we release into the atmosphere, the more heat becomes trapped on Earth instead of being reflected back into space. Therefore, warming up the Earth more than normal over time.
Biogeochemical Cycles
rocesses that cycle matter in an ecosystem.
Chemical Cycles
These include the water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen and phosphorous cycle.

As matter moves through these cycles, it is never created or destroyed — just changed.

Organisms needs nutrients and water to build tissues and carry out life functions.

Nutrients and water pass through organisms and the environment through these cycles. Biological processes such as eating and breathing, Geological processes such as earthquakes and volcanoes, Chemical processes such as
rain and lightning, and human activing such as using fossil fuels, or logging all contribute to these cycles.


Biogeochemical Cycles
Play the Carbon Cycle game! Click the link below:

Click on each link below for an interactive Biogeochemical Cycle:
Full transcript