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Transcript of Networked Image
Loyola University, 2013
Edgar Gómez Cruz Background: Why photography? "Introlusions" to digital photography Fieldwork Theoretical standpoint Networked Image.
Two examples of the sociotechnical practice History of Internet Studies in 3 cartoons Theoretical "toolbox":
Social Construction of technology (Bijker)-
Domestication of technology (Silverstone, Morley and Hirsch)
Actor-Network Theory (Latour, Law)
“Circuit of the Culture” (Du Gay, et.al)
Practice turn in contemporary theory (Schatzki, Knorr-Cetina Von Savigny)
“Media as practices” (Couldry)
(and specific theories for specific elements (i.e. Goffman/Butler) 2. Photography: a socio-technical/practice approach “Photography is so evidently material and social, objective and subjective, that is, heterogeneous. It is a complex amalgam of technology, discourse and practice. Photographic agency is a relational effect that first comes into force when a heterogeneous network of humans and non-humans is in place” (Larsen, 2008, p. 145) A practice is:
A routinized way in which bodies are moved, objects are handled, subjects are treated, things are described and the world is understood. To say that practices are ‘social practices’ then is indeed a tautology: A practice is social, as it is a ‘type’ of behaving and understanding that appears at different locales and at different points of time and is carried out by different body/minds (Reckwitz, 2002, p. 250). Photographic practices include all those routines of preparation, production, use and sharing of photographic images.
The meaning of these practices, for a given social group, is particularly related to the manner in which these practices are integrated (and thus also shaped) in their everyday life The technical is socially constructed, and the social is technically constructed. All stable ensembles are bound together as much by the technical as by the social. Social classes, occupational groups, firms, professions, machines-all are held in place by intimate social and technical links [...] Society is not determined by technology, nor is technology determined by society. Both emerge as two sides of the sociotechnical coin during the construction processes of artifacts, facts, and relevant social groups (Bijker, 1995, p. 273-274). From photography as a representation to photography as an action. Or more precisely, part of different actions, constant in time. Actions that shape meanings (practices). Importance of technology Photography as a series of actions Meaning as a social construction 3. SortidazZ Edwards “approaches photographs through an ethnographically-grounded consideration of the functions and expectations that make photographs meaningful” (2009, p. 34). Since: “a visual semiotics founded on linguistic models provides an inadequate account of the way in which photographs acquire meaning in lived experience” (2009, p. 34). Cause: “there has been a predominant tendency to see what the photograph is of, but not what the photograph is” (p. 36) Building the field Online/Offline=Onlife
Connective, Digital, Mediated
Practice stories To consolidate themselves as a group They perform their identity as a collective through photographic, connective, digital and cultural practices seamlessly mediated everyday life.
With images, comments, links, jokes, material objects, "beers and bravas" and, over all, connections, both online and offline, the group is formed and sustained over time. To name themselves To photograph themselves The parable of David It all began with a tornado... ..the practice needs to be shared... ..the sharing needs to be wider... ...Same practice, different site, but... ...and he searched for a group... "I saw a tornado at the airport and I couldn't probe it to nobody, so... I bought a camera" "I began to take pictures of planes and I realized some other people did it too and also shared those photos" "No Photoshop, no black and white. I went to Flickr" The rules changed. He had to buy a new camera, expensive. Just to shoot airplanes? And not everything was about planes anymore "I had no idea how to shoot anything else and I understood I could learn from them" And became part of him and his everyday life ...and an active member of a group as well... To photograph themselves To photograph themselves To connect themselves as a group as a group of photographers actively performing their role showing and materializing their membership with visual/digital connections showing and materializing their membership with visual and onlife connections To connect themselves as sociotechnical connectors "onlife" "It is natural that photography should be the object of a reading that may be called sociological, and that it should never be considered for itself, in terms of its technical or aesthetic qualities" (p. 22) Situated Knowledge: From virtual to visual - New technologies for the production and distribution - New devices, actors, affordances and constrains - Different temporalities and numbers - New and different materialities - New discourses, controversies and hybridization - A growing number of practitioners and practices - Changes and capital struggles in the field ("citizen journalism", visual politics, visual urban spaces, lo-fi aesthetics, new art codes) - Photography 2.0 // After //post //end photography The minute you start saying something, 'Ah, how beautiful! We must photograph it!' you are already close to the view of the person who thinks that everything that is not photographed is lost, as if it had never existed, and that therefore, in order really to live, you must photograph as much as you can, and to photograph as much as you can you must either live in the most photographable way possible, or else consider photographable every moment of your life. The first course leads to stupidity; the second to madness. - Communication Studies
- Social sciences Methods
- Sociological theory
- Anthropological method "Virtual communities" Communication, identity, (dis)embodiment, social life and cultural production online 1. More and more visual elements in online interaction
2. Internet embedded in everyday life
3. Tired of chasing the "newness" of ICT's research
4. I used to like photography very much
5. I moved from Madrid to Barcelona and, while excited by the STS approach, began to work with a visual anthropologist Who are the "sortidozZ" Networked image, a working concept to grasp the novelty and uniqueness of digital photography practices:
- Relationship between production, distribution and use of photographs and the wider transformations in the cultural field of photography
- Photography as interface, connection and language.
- Photography embedded in everyday routines in mediating settings (both online and offline)
- Beyond dichotomies (public/private; professional/amateur; photography/design; personal/massive, etc.)
- A life more photographable, to photograph everyday life Me in the field: the "thesis writer" More // contact http://imagenaciones.com/ https://twitter.com/Imagenaciones http://imagenaciones.tumblr.com/ http://instagram.com/imagenaciones http://www.flickr.com/photos/patadeperro/ E.Gomez@leeds.ac.uk Digital Photography: paradoxically old and new "Practice stories method" To sum up... Living photographically? Some elements for a discussion on ethics Contextual and "tailored" ethics
Ethics in dialogue and "in progress"
Open reciprocity September 2008-March 2010
Barcelona, Granada, Madrid, Mexico, Oxford and London "The Kodak model, a technology (rolls of film and a simple camera), a business model (selling film and photofinishing service), and a practice (capturing images of family members and familiar events) stabilized in the Kodak Culture in the twentieth century and reminded the dominant form of photography for almost a century" (Sarvas y Frohlich, 2011, p. 16) Findings
An ethnographhic account between practices and social networks (beyond the specific platforms).
The importance of the sociotechnical mechanisms of reciprocity for the social network's construction. How Internet sociability looks Photography:Vast bibliography But mainly essays, theoretical, philosophical, semiotics and aesthetics. And mainly in art and journalism 2011 2012 Anthropological approach