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8 Cultural Universals Prezi

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Linda Farrington

on 28 August 2013

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Transcript of 8 Cultural Universals Prezi

8 Cultural Universals
Material Culture
Arts, Play and Recreation
Language and Nonverbal
Communication
Social Organization
Conflict and Warfare
Economic Organization
Education
Material culture includes the clothing people make and wear, the shelters they build and live in, the tools, weapons and transportation they use, and their personal possessions and household articles. This universal provides us with many clues about a people’s ingenuity and technological skill.
This universal is basic to human creativity and integrity. It allows people an outlet for personal expression, serves as a medium for communication and has great therapeutic value. Drawing, painting, carving, making pottery, singing, playing a musical instrument, literature, drama, dancing, games and contests are examples of this universal. Standards of beauty taste, and pleasure vary from society to society but each group has well-developed standards of beauty that receive general support from a society.
People communicate with one another in a variety of ways which include verbal and nonverbal forms. Both are present in all cultures. Examples of nonverbal language are body language, gestures, sign language, and non-verbal utterances. Language is part of our cultural inheritance. Without language, people would not have been able to form and maintain societies and cultures.
Social organization is a term which refers to the ways in which people join together and form themselves into groups. The organization of a society is partly determined by a people’s view of the importance of age and sex to the society. These factors influence a person’s status, rank or role in society. Human social organization depends on learned and established patterns of behavior. This is reflected in family customs, group ceremonies and community organizations. In most societies, children are carefully trained and educated so that they may eventually occupy the societal positions held by the elders.
Nuclear family- a type of kinship system- the basic social unit
Extended family- a type of kinship system- including aunts, uncles, cousins, grandparents
A conflict involves the clash of opposing forces, ideals or people. There are 3 types of conflict: with self, with another person or with another larger group. Warfare means active conflict or struggle between two or more opposing forces. Warfare has existed at some level in every known society.
Conflict exists in many forms from verbal disagreements to violent battles. Ways of handing conflict vary. Some cultures cope with conflict by using the forces of social control to discourage or reduce it.
Some form of economic organization is common to all cultures. The work done by people is central to any society and what we call economic organization is the system by which the material culture items of a society are produced, distributed and consumed. Bartering (an exchange of goods and services) is the most simple exchange system. As societies become more complex they usually develop a market system based on money.
Some form of economic organization is common to all cultures. The work done by people is central to any society and what we call economic organization is the system by which the material culture items of a society are produced, distributed and consumed. Bartering (an exchange of goods and services) is the most simple exchange system. As societies become more complex they usually develop a market system based on money.
Each society passes along its practices through two of education; formal and informal.
Informal education is where the children and adults learn through observation and imitation.
Formal education is where the children and adults attend schools to acquire knowledge.
Social Control
Every society has its own standards and values concerning the kinds of behaviors it considers to be normal, good and right. Members of a society are expected to fit their actions into the framework of rules in that society. This social orderliness is known as social control. The family is generally recognized as being ultimately responsible for training children to adhere to the accepted rules.
Customs and rules become systematized into law and governmental institutions are developed to handle and enforce the system. Every system of law has a way of rewarding and punishing so as to reinforce acceptable behavior. The desire for public approval and social acceptance encourages the desired behaviors.
Authoritarian systems- individuals have little say in the government
Democratic systems- individuals have a strong voice in how he or she is ruled
by: Linda Farrington
Amherst Middle School
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