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CoCT - SFA2 - Technology & Innovation

Originally presented to IMPS-SA conference - updated since.
by

JP Smith

on 14 January 2016

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Transcript of CoCT - SFA2 - Technology & Innovation

Overall, South Africa’s crime situation has improved steadily over the past decade.
Since the 2002/03 financial year, when total crime levels peaked in South Africa, the overall crime rate has decreased by 21%.
However, this trend changed recently when a 3% increase in total crime levels was recorded in the two-year period between 2007/08 and 2009/10, caused largely by increases in property-related crimes such as theft and commercial crimes.
However, total crime rates decreased again between 2009/10 and 2010/11 by a marginal 2,4%.
In the latest figures we see total crime again decreasing slightly by 0,6% from 2 071 487 cases last year to 2 016 316.
This is largely as a result of increases in property-related crime, while overall violent crime decreased by 2,3%.
Total crime levels in South Africa
courtesy of ISS
Statistics South Africa: National Victims of Crime Survey (NVCS) - End of 2011
The survey found that South Africans’ perception of crime supported the trend in the crime statistics with most responses, just over 41%, perceiving that both violent and property crime had decreased in their areas over the past two years.
The table above shows that overall serious crime levels have decreased dramatically since the 2002/2003 financial year by 21%.
The current overall levels of crime are actually quite comparable with the levels recorded in 1994/1995.
Unfortunately it remains the case that our murder and violent crime rates are far higher than they should be, with 30,9 South Africans in every 100 000 the victims of homicide.

This means in the 2011/12 financial year a total of 15 609 murders were recorded by the police, an average of a little under 43 per day.

This means that since 1994 the murder rate has decreased by almost 54%, when it stood at 66,9 per 100 000 people to the current 31.9 per 100 000.
Murder Rate
Attempted murder also continued with its downward trend, decreasing by 5,2% compared to 2010/11.
This is smaller than the 12,2% decrease recorded in the previous year.
Attempted murder
According to data gathered by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), this ranks us as having
one of the highest homicide rates in Africa and the world.
Our murder rate is just under
twice that of the average for Africa
, which is 17 murders per 100 000, and
four and a half times more than the global average
of 6,9 murders per 100 000.
Benchmark
The most recent UNODC study on global murder rates now shows that
South Africa has the 16th highest murder rate
of those countries measured.
At least five other African countries have higher murder rates, including the Ivory Coast (56.9), Zambia (38), Uganda (36,3), Malawi (36) and Lesotho (35.2).
The country with the highest murder rate in the world as of 2012 is Honduras, with 91.6 murders per 100 000.
The World's Highest Murder Rate?
Poverty Crime
Murder and attempted murder trends 1994/95 – 2011/12
There are questions about the extent to which the police figures on assault accurately reflect the real extent of this crime in South Africa.
The Department of Justice reported to parliament this year that 217 989 cases of protection orders were opened mostly by women against their partners.
This suggests that many criminal cases of assault are not opened with the police and that people prefer other ways of dealing with this problem.
Correct?
Crime figures in Cape Town are extremely high which acts as a disincentive for investment and job creation as well as rendering societies dysfunctional and costing government billions of Rands.

While most crime figures are lower in Cape Town than in JHB and Durban, property crime is highly localized and violent and contact crime has a devastating effect on the Cape Flats and townships.

Gangsterism and gang-related violence is more problematic and destructive in Cape Town than in other metros and alcohol and drug abuse are historically higher than in other parts of the country and play a devastating social role.

The 2011/12 crime statistics show alarming trends in the Western Cape with crime either rising proportionally to the rest of the country or reducing by a smaller proportion than in other comparable provinces.
Problem Statement
During the last five years the City has managed to get many of “the basics” right:
> professionalising and de-politicising the management
> reinstating discpline and rooting out corruption
> reinstating the focus on training
> tightening procedures, policies and by-laws
> increasing staffing, vehicles, equipment and facilities resources to recover backlog
Functional Specialisation
Policies and By-laws
Partnerships
Intelligence-driven
Technologies
(Training)
Frugal with rates:
Smaller operational numbers compared to other metros in SA.
Lean & Mean…
“…make the point that in 2006 we were basically on our knees in the enforcement services due to a lack of direction and focus and totally ineffectual management as well as a Metro Police force which was embarrassing at times...

"Since 2008 we have focused on fixing things as well as improving staff numbers and efficiency levels - this was really kick started by our
festive season plan December 2008 - January 2009
- in many respects that was a
watershed
catalyst for this city's enforcement agencies as for the first time the uniform services worked together with a common goal and the first time that staff had an opportunity to advance – the first time in 15 years for some Traffic departments...

“Since then we have not looked back and except for a few minor hiccups we have gone from strength the strength, we now need to move to the next level where we continue to focus on and expand our specialised units while ensuring we still have our broad general day-to-day capacity as this lets our specialised units free to focus on their core jobs… “The other two areas you have covered is the extension of our social crime prevention initiatives, such as our academy and the use of technology.
Assessment by the Executive Director:
Common misinterpretation of crime stats for “Drug related crime” and “Driving under the influence” resulting in negative media reports when in fact the City should get credit for a positive development in the combating of drug related crime.
Crime Detected as a result of Police Action = increase from 1289:100 000 in 2008 to 1834:100 000 in 2012 (43% increase!)
The drug-related crime stat is police-initiated (Crime Detected as a Result of Police Action) - stats for drug related crime (and DWI) are generated as a result of police action and not “reported” by the victims or members of the public as is the case with other crime categories.
The incidence of drug related crime is extremely high in the Western Cape and supports the call for specialised units.
Premier Helen Zille in 2007 insisted that the City and SAPS increase focus on drug related crime. As a result, it became one of our Directorate’s main IDP objectives and our Metro Police managed to increase its drug related arrests every year, from
300
in 2006 to just over
1800
in 2012.
Similarly, statistic around the control of alcohol shows that
183 shebeens
have been
closed
in the last two years,
2414 inspections
were done and
588 complaints
responded to - up from 0 in 2006
Drug and alcohol crime stats in Cape Town
Bring resources in line with South African best practice and align budget to IDP:

CAPEX
Maintain R65 million per year CAPEX budget

OPEX
Employ 1200 extra staff in the directorate during this term
1000 extra operational uniformed enforcement staff by 2015/16
200 extra Fire staff by 2015/16
First 113 on track for this financial year, with more to follow mid-year
Resources
To
reduce the impact of crime
by focus on
getting the basics right
in the
functional policing
areas within the control of local government (traffic and by-law enforcement and specialised services),

while working in
partnership
with other policing agencies on other critical policing priorities (e.g. crime prevention, vehicle theft and drugs).

This will require not only
increasing resources
, but also making
more efficient use of limited resources
through business improvement processes,
functional specialisation
,
training
,
IT
, partnership and
legislative review
.

At the same time we will introduce our first
social crime prevention projects
through VPUU, Ceasefire,
the
School Youth Academy & others.
Strategic Objective
Rape has consistently increased since 2008/9, and while this may indicate higher levels of reporting, research conducted by the Medical Research Council over the past two years has shown that the levels of rape perpetration in South Africa are unusually high.

2008/09: 54 126 cases of rape
> increased to 55 097 in 2009/10
> increased again in 2010/11 to 56 272

in 2011/2012 rape decreased for the first time by 1.9%
Rape
on red
This form of robbery has a serious impact on perceptions of general public safety because of its violent nature and the oft-reported brutality of the robbers.

The economic impact of aggravated robbery is both direct (cash and property) and indirect (emotional trauma, cost of increasing security and insurance while hindering investment).
> 101 203 aggravated robberies recorded in 2011/12, a marginal decrease of 0.3% was apparent compared to the year before

> notable shift when compared to the 16.4% decrease over the preceding two years
This crime may be decreasing over the years due to the substantial increase in visible policing given that the ranks of the SAPS have swelled by almost 70 000 people since 2002/03.
> business robbery continued to rise with an 8.8% increase compared to the previous year with 15 951 cases recorded

> since 2004/05 this crime has increased by a substantial 380%.
> ‘commercial crime’, which includes all kinds of corruption, fraud, money laundering, embezzlement, forgery and so forth, has
increased consistently
by a substantial
63%
between 2004/05 and 2010/11
>
this year
reflects a very
small decrease
of 0.4%
or 338 cases compared with the previous year
The fact that vehicle hijackings have declined by 10,8% this year is very good news.
This means that since 2009/10, this crime has decreased by a remarkable 34,4%.
Vehicle Hijackings
> residential robbery decreased by a marginal
0,7% (from 16 766 cases in 2011/12)
> notable change in the trend from the previous two years when this crime declined a substantial 10,1%
> residential robberies have been of serious
concern for some time now given that they increased by 100% between 2003/04 and 2009/10
Residential
Robberies
The NVCS reveals that more people (50,4%) were scared of this crime happening to them than any other crime category.
Aggravated Robberies
BUT...
Business Robberies
The reliability and validity of crime statistics depends on many factors:
1. it depends on the extent to which the public reports crime incidents to the police
- which is determined factors such as:
> the extent to which the public thinks the police will be able to arrest the perpetrator
> whether people are insured and
> whether they trust the police
> all this differs substantially from one community to the next
2. if crimes are reported, statistical accuracy depends on the capabilities of the tens of thousands of police officers at the 1 122 police stations all over the country, before the figures are
compiled by police Head Office in Pretoria
>> nowhere in the world are crime statistics a scientific measure of a crime challenge
>> rather, we use them as indicators to track the trend of broad crime categories over time
source of alternative data are the ‘National Victims of Crime’ surveys conducted in
1997, 2003, 2007 and 2011
& data released by the Medical Science
Research Council recently
Can assess the trends in crimes such as residential robbery, burglary, vehicle hijacking and theft with statistics on claims received annually for these types of crimes by:
> members of the South African Insurance Association (SAIA).

We can also assess trends in business-related crime from data collected by private bodies such as:
> the South African Banking Risk and Information Centre (SABRIC),
> the Consumer Goods Council of South Africa and:
> the annual Grant Thornton International Business Report
To date, there has always been consistency in the trends shown by independent
sources and the police statistics.
The City of Cape Town have four Spy Chevrolet Cruse sedans in four different colours
It has cameras hidden behind the grill of the vehicle that are able to scan number plates of vehicles that pass and that are parked
Inside the vehicle is an on board computer with a touch screen, a printer and a video recorder
ANPR Vehicles - also known as "spy cars"
Functionality of the touch screen that is linked to E-Natis are as follows
- checks can be done on:
> drivers license and vehicle registration
numbers
> outstanding fines and warrants on the drivers identity numbers
> stolen vehicles
> mismatched number plates
> un-roadworthy vehicles as well as unlicensed vehicles
The camera system forms an integral part of Fire and Rescue Services commitment to responding to fires as quickly as possible. We constantly explore ways in which technology can make us more efficient
designed to detect and plot the location of fire and smoke within a radius of 5km from the camera’s location
the information is then transmitted to the Fire and Rescue Services Command and Control Centre in Goodwood, where the location is plotted on a map and the necessary vehicles dispatched to the incident
Fire Detection Cameras
> presently there are six cameras in operation in the following areas:
•9SAI: inside the military base along the N2 in the Khayelitsha area
•Cape Town International Airport: on a high site on the grounds of the airport
•Tygerberg Hills: on the communication mast on the hill
•Papagaaiberg: on the communication tower on the Helderberg mountain range
•V & A Waterfront: at the Port Control Tower
•Muizenberg: Cinebar Flats

It is planned to expand the system and include the following camera sites:
•Helderberg: to cover the Strand and Somerset West area; Kontermanskloof: to cover the Milnerton to Melkbos area; Bottelary: to cover Kraafontein and surrounding areas; King’s Blockhouse: to cover the Mowbray to Woodstock Areas; Hout Bay: to cover the Suikerbossie area
The fire and smoke detection camera system is used worldwide, with the American Forestry Department making extensive use of it in the dense forest areas.
LIQUOR ENFORCEMENT UNIT STATS JAN – JULY
2011


Inspections conducted on Licensed Premises: 870
Inspections conducted on Unlicensed Premises: 679
Total amount of fines issued: 983
Monetary Value of fines issued: R832 520,00
Premises closed: 139
LIQUOR ENFORCEMENT UNIT STATS JAN – JULY
2012

Inspections conducted on Licensed Premises: 537
Inspections conducted on Unlicensed Premises: 328
Total amount of fines issued: 400
Monetary Value of fines issued: R414 050,00
Premises closed: 44
As soon as a vehicle with the above mentioned pass, the camera picks it up and immediately sounds and alarm to alert the Officer.
The printer inside the vehicle is to print a copy of a warrant to affect an arrest on outstanding warrants (this is the main function of the vehicles supplied by Syntell)
The video camera records violations and records conversations inside and outside the vehicle. The camera can be manually activated or is activated as soon as the blue lights are switched on
The vehicle is fitted with sirens and hidden blue lights.
Bottom-Up
Where we (try to) keep up with the private sector...
1. Integrated community-driven war rooms / operations centres with: SAPS/MPD/LE/NHW/Private Security

2. Better Intelligence and intelligence led deployments

3. More effective patrollers – CoCt LE Reservist program

4. Use of Technology (incl. radio networks, CCTV & ANPR/LPR)
Why License Plate
Recognition Cameras?
cf. Prof. Rudolf Zinn: "Home Invasion"
Communities are employing a multi-pronged solution to fight crime
Est 85% of our serious crime involves vehicles.

Research in City Bowl shows average house breaking / robbery syndicate commits 6 crimes in our area before being caught or disappearing

Goal: We Can reduce that to 1-3 using LPR
Currently working on adopting policy to permit private installations on CoCT infrastructure
This model has now been implemented in numerous communities across Cape Town.
Looking up...
CoCT
Innovation & Technology
CCTV
800 CCTV & FMS cameras across City

Review CCTV Master Plan and camera use:
> sustainability and affordability
> monitoring of all cameras 24/7
> camera response agreements through CIDs/SRAs, etc. (rent-a-cop)
> Traffic prosecution (especially IRT & BMT lanes)
> testing and refining of equipment to increase quality for prosecutorial purposes
> PPP with private installations & inter-operability
International best practice (e.g. London Metro Police)

> refining of strategy and procedures
> pilot study in Mowbray to Wynberg installation in Jan 2013
> ANPR functionality & pilot at PTIs

London Metropolitan Police recommendation:
> reverse monitoring/response deployment
> intelligence-driven

SA Bi-annual CCTV Operators Forum?
> host on rotational basis?
> we have suggested this to MPDs
We've come a long way
Resources
But...
Extra BUDGET?


YES... but...
PARTNERSHIP
More
importantly...
PARTNERSHIP
S
Expand partnerships with communities, private sector and other departments and spheres of government:
Expand rent-a-cop programme (SRAs, MURC, private sector, local and provincial government depts. & others)
MOUs with para-statals (Transet, Metrorail, Telkom, etc.) and private sector (Outsurance – next possibility is “tourism police”)
3 MOUs signed in 2 months:

> NPA/DOJ (expand Municipal & Community Courts),
> Prov. Housing (rent-a-cop Social Housing Unit)
> WCED (SROs)
Established Housing Safety Unit and Transit Police in partnership with CoCT Housing and Transport & expedite drug house evictions
Established Film & Events Unit
> win-win scenario for
- City
- reserve traffic wardens
- film companies
CPF liaison mechanism restructuring (dedicated CPF resource staff)
Expand Neighbourhood Watch support programme:
> strong emphasis on "Broken Windows" training linked to DOCS
> resources (after)
> C3 notifications


Focus on training and reservist development
Volunteer, Reservists & Auxiliary Services
started with
DRM Volunteers
adopted i.t.o. national regulations
expanding from 420 to 650

Expanded project to
Law Enforcement Auxiliary Services
(1st intake of 100 in Dec 2012)

Awaiting agreement from Provincial MEC (Robin Carlisle) for
Traffic Reservists
(through expanded reserve traffic wardens powers)

Fire Reservist
Service will go live in Feb 2013

linked with
EPWP
& CWP programmes


Marine & Environmental Enforcement Unit

Thank you
Continue to improve efficiency of Public Emergency Call Centre (107 PECC)
> Twitter functionality added
Working towards complete integration across services (already combined 2 out of 3 call centres)
Will be integrated with SAP and ISERMS (Smartcop) within 2 yrs 8 months
Expanding technology to improve customer satisfaction (e.g. SMS reply)
Will migrate from 44 Wale Street to the TMC in Goodwood

THIS IS AN IMPORTANT INVESTMENT IN PUBLIC CONFIDENCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY
Public Emergency Call Centre
> urgent need to safeguard marine and environmental heritage from increasing poaching and vandalism
> part-sponsored by another directorate on "user pays" principle
> the Law Enforcement staff have been appointed as EMIs and will be appointed as Fishery Control Officers which will allow us to patrol
> Marine Unit and vessel operate in an integrated manner with DAFF, SAPS, Nature Conservation and Coastal Management and Compliance
On the boat
> 7.5 meter semi rigid stealth rubber duck
> quiet motors
> fuel capacity for 20 hours
> registered as a “C” class craft with approval to go up to 15 nautical miles
Functional Specialisation
Housing Safety Unit
photo taken at launch in Athlone of original 18 members
currently 24 members sponsored by Human Settlements Directorate
work exclusively in City's 44 000 social housing flats and houses
dealing with safety (crime prevention) as well as quality of life issues
building relationships of trust which leads to information & tip-offs
Provincial Housing have come on board and are now spnsoring a further 46 members
both WCG and CoCT housing depts. have indicated that they wil be extending the sponsorship
LE Auxiliary Service
Council approved the Reserve Law Enforcement Service Policy for the City at the end of 2010 (Item No; MC 42/08/10) >> revised policy adopted in 2012 changing name to "Auxiliary Service" with other minor amendments
recruitment from NHW members
formalises and profesionalises NHWs
empowers communities to help themselves
patrol in uniform
can achieve rank
16 hrs a month volunteer commitment, but stipend paid when called up for projects, festive season or events
sign in as per normal at nearest time-and-attendance point
linked with DRM Volunteers
fully trained and appointed peace officers
:
(GN R209 Feb 2002 amended by GN R1201 Sept 2002 (Declaration of Peace Officers) Part 5 (a), including all City By-Laws, Section 4&5
Land Use Planning Ordinance 15/1985,
Fire Brigade Services Act 99/1987, National Building Regulation and Building Standards Act 103/1977, Occupational Health and Safety Act 6/1993, Business Act 71/1991 and GN R209 Part 5 (c) IRO traffic wardens as well as Schedule 1 to the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977, in respect of the following
offences:
Public violence, murder, culpable homicide, rape, indecent assault, robbery,
assault, (when a dangerous wound is inflicted), arson, malicious injury to
property, breaking or entering any premises with intent to commit an offense, theft and escaping from lawful custody.
Hundreds of applications received from Neighbourhood Watch Organizations and other community members
Employed community members will be trained part-time and over weekends
Unemployed members will be trained full time or with part-time recruits
Training will be conducted internally by full time staff with no extra cost
Roll-out will be 30-40 members per quarter depending on intake [negotiating with an FET to increase this to 100/quarter]
Recruiting and Training the
Auxiliary Law Enforcement Officer
Additional Budget for General Expenses (uniform and safety equipment) coming online in Jan 2012 Adj. budget
Additional Budget for Vehicles and Specialized Equipment provided
Minimum 16 hours volunteer work
Stipend through EPWP when called up for special projects (Events, festive Season deployment)
Huge saving for the city on staffing budget
Budgeting for Auxiliary Service
NSO
Community Policing
Dedicated Police Officer in village-sized area
Heavy focus on problem solving & order maintenance
Police officials tasked to promote open communication and cooperation amongst all stake holders – particular area
Harnessing the collective resources of law enforcement agencies, City and Private Sector towards the solving of crime and disorder related problems.

Similar principles applied in USA (COPS), UK (London neighbourhood Safety Teams) and Netherlands (Amsterdam Buurtregie)

>> 17 NSOs deployed in Cape Town now
"repurposing" CTMPD as the trouble-shooters
> training is everything
Neighbourhood Safety Officers:
Similar to the US programmes, “Junior Police Academy” and “Magnet.”
The main objectives for the implementation of such a programme will be to:
Provide a safe school environment through a structured programme aligned to the Department’s Education Safety Management Safe Schools Programme
Build partnership: promote respect and understanding for police/law enforcement officers.
Support the promotion and protection of the rule of law.
Encourage learners and communities to be partners in building safer schools and communities.
Support the facilitation of life skills after hours and the cultivation of personal accountability.
link to Youth Academy
SRO
School Resource Officer
Already an insurance company has approached us to sponsor the programme!
MOU signed with WCED
Other relevant departments also on board
NASRO completed 1st part of training
10 SROs selected and trained with NASRO guidance
6 deployed into schools
4 supporting the Youth Academy
School Resource Officer
Started with Metal Theft Unit (Copperheads) and expand to:
Drug Busters (SAU)
Problem Building Unit
Liquor Control Unit
Transit Unit (PTI & IRT)
Marine & Environmental Enforcement
Gang Unit
Special Investigation Unit (SIU)
Ghost Squads
Social Housing Unit
NSOs & SROs
Animal Control Unit
Graffiti Unit
Anti Land Invasion Unit (ALIU)
Vice Squad

Provide specialised training for these units (e.g. animal welfare training for ACU and local and foreign experts)
Improve specialised vehicle and equipment allocation (e.g. Copperheads and Drug Busters)
Along with existing units:
Tactical Response Unit (TRU)
Displaced Peoples Unit
Informal Trading Unit

> Developing IRT & PTI units
> along with Public Transport and Taxi Ghost Squad and negotiations with PRASA regarding commuter trains
>> moving towards integrated transport policing
Safety and Security has adopted focus on training and human resource development to achieve better efficiency and discipline with limited resources

Expand capacity of 3 training colleges with extra staff

Maintain accreditation of training college
Expand range and quality of training college

Continue to source domestic and foreign expertise for particularly specialised training (e.g. NFI training)

Also needed for LE Auxiliary Service training requirements
Training
The face of the directorate
Hardcore
Softcore
ISERMS
Technology
Policies & By-laws
Efficiency & Business Improvement Process studies
Various Task Teams (e.g. Fine Payment Rate Task Team & Efficiency Task Team)
Subcouncil, Portfolio Committee & CIVOC oversight through increased insight into stats through ISERMS and improved quarterly reporting (use of visual aids)
Identify “resource hogs” and implement strategy to contain (e.g. animal complaints, street people, informal trading, noise, dumping and littering)
CPF liaison pilot project underway in 3 CPFs (review and accountability)
Efficiency
Create effective legislation and policy tools

Job Shadowing, Impoundment and Rewards & Incentive Policy

Review By-laws to close loopholes (e.g. Streets and Public Places By-law)

Introduce provincial or local legislation relating to Business licensing

Achieve high levels of proficiency with policies and by-laws for all staff
By-laws
Effective use of legislative mandates in Schedule 4 B and 5 B of Constitution

Problem Building By-law

Traffic By-law

even Graffiti By-law
Spheres of Government
Drive programmes, policies, by-laws and strategies on new research
Budget for this
Commission research through pro-actively
Crime threat analysis and priority crime identification
Portfolio Committee to act as think tank with assignment of various task teams to individual councillors & external experts co-opted onto committee
Research
Strategic Information & Intelligence
Establish intelligence-driven policing with internal information gathering capacity
Training of Specialised Units
Special Investigations Unit
Gang Task Force (Gang Unit)
Rewards for information
Cooperation with other security roleplayers

> achievements already seen through tracking and tracing, corruption busting & murder investigation
Need for coordination to respond appropriately to national government legislation:
> AARTO
> Single police service
> Possible pro-active meetings with national minister
this is how
we get
the staff I need...
Gunfire Detection Technology
When gunfire occurs outdoors, sensors and software triangulate and pinpoint the precise location of each round fired within seconds.
Detailed incident data is instantly sent to the Operations Center, the secure data processing and alert qualification facility.


Immediately, the gunfire and acoustic expert analyzes the data, qualifies the incident and sends a validated alert to the dispatch center or other response agencies;
Even directly to mobile and field personnel.
Qualified Alerts include critical situational awareness such as number of shots fired, shooter position, speed and direction of travel (of a moving shooter) and the exact time of gunfire.
How the technology works:
Constant, 360-degree wide-area
acoustic surveillance throughout
coverage areas
• Immediate alerts and precise location
anywhere in the coverage area
• Detailed forensic data for
investigation, prosecution
and analysis
• Easily-accessible single and cumulative
historical incident reports
• Subscription-based service without
the burden and costs of acquiring
and managing technology
Key Features
City of Cape Town about to go to tender on this technology
Influencing Provincial & National legislation:
Businesses Act
Liquor Act
Heritage (Problem Buildings)
Control of Precursor Chemicals
Provincial Traffic Act and subsequent regulations
Full transcript