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How do animals communicate?

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Evan Filo

on 13 September 2012

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Transcript of How do animals communicate?

How do Animals Communicate? Introduction Factual Text Book Review Narrative Fine Arts Journal Entries Questions? Could you imagine a world where all living things could communicate just like humans? Did you know that 93% of all communication is by use of body language such as gestures, pitch, tone, colour and smells? So if 93% of communication is not by speech then surely all living things can communicate in some way regardless of their level of intelligence.
For my IRT I am focusing on the Howler Monkey, the Diana Monkey, Elephants and Dolphins. I chose these animals because they are intelligent and they all have their own specialty. Howler monkeys are the second loudest animals in the world. Dolphins and elephants are some of the most intelligent animals. The Diana monkey can communicate with other species of animals.
How do these animals communicate? Conclusion Thank you
for your time In conclusion, animals have been communicating for a very long time and in many different ways. They communicate to each other with sound, gestures, colour, pitch, smell and tone. There are simple forms of communication such as the colour change of the salmon to show that they are ready to mate; to more advanced communication such as echolocation used by bats. So out of the big variety of animals, I focused on Dolphins, Elephants, the Diana monkey and the Howler monkey. I chose these animals because they are intelligent and they all have their own specialty. Howler monkeys are the second loudest animals in the world. Dolphins and elephants are some of the most intelligent animals. The Diana monkey can communicate with other species of animals. Even though we have some knowledge of how to communicate with animals; hopefully, in the future we will learn more about how they communicate and maybe even communicate with them in a more advanced way. Pop Art Bibliography Quiz 1. 2. 3. How many animals did I use for my IRT
and what are they? What are the two things Howler Monkeys
do to mark their territory? What sound does a dolphin
use to echolocate? Answer:
I used four animals for my presentation. They are the Howler Monkey, the Diana Monkey, the Elephant and the Dolphin. Answer:
They howl to show other troops where
they are and where their territory is. They also use their dung to mark the boundary of the territory. Answer:
Dolphins use clicking noises to echolocate. 1 2 3 Monkeys live in groups. A group of monkeys is called a troop. Every monkey in the troop can help to defend sources of food, raise their young ones and keep on the lookout for any signs of danger. Though to do all this they need some form of communication. The monkeys in the group need ways to notify and command each other. Monkey communication has evolved in many ways, including facial expressions, auditory calls and even sometimes olfactory signals. Olfactory signals are a form of chemical communication. An example of this is when a bitch is on heat. This is when a female dog secretes a fluid from her body. The fluid has an odour that the male dogs are able to smell. The females do this to show they are ready to mate. Visual signals only work if they are spotted. The most basic signals that monkeys use are alarm calls, territorial calls, food calls, identification calls and dominance calls. But some monkeys developed more complicated forms of auditory communication and some monkeys have even developed language. Howler Monkey Howler monkeys are very big monkeys that mostly rely on their vocals to communicate. They can howl, bark, woof, and growl to show anger, affection or warning.
Howler monkeys howl or roar extremely loud. They howl every morning at dawn to show their troop where they are located. What’s amazing is their howl can be heard from up to 4.8 kilometres away.

The troops cry when they are active to show their location and territory to keep other troops away. Howler monkeys prevent competition by marking their territory with their dung.

Grooming is a common monkey communication. Some monkeys groom to show affection but Howler monkeys groom each other to communicate social status. The lower status monkeys are groomed by the higher status monkeys. When it comes to language Diana monkeys are one of the most intelligent. They can associate different calls to make sentence-like messages. Grammar is needed to do this. The sentences meaning depends on what noises are included and in what order. More sounds carry more information. Every animal of prey has its own different call. What’s really impressive is the Diana monkey can communicate with seven other monkey species. They work in one big troop. These monkeys are Guenons, Spot-Nosed Guenons, Putty-Nosed Guenons, Campbell’s Guenons, Sooty Mangabeys, Red Colobus and Black and White Colobus. Each monkey has about 15 different signals. That’s 120 signals to remember. There are not a lot of humans who speak 8 different languages.

Diana monkeys and Hornbill birds both live in the Ivory Coast of Africa. They sometimes feed and rest in the same trees and they are both the prey of the crowned eagle. When either of these animals signals that they are in danger they can both understand and hide. Diana Monkey Dolphin Bottle-nosed dolphins are one of the most intelligent animals. Most of their brain is used for communication and echolocation.

The whistles of the dolphin carry personal information.

Dolphins don’t have vocal cords but communicate by using whistles, squeaks, moans, trills and clicks which are formed by the sphincter muscle inside the blow hole.

Dolphins click to echolocate. The clicks bounce off objects and come back to them. The further away the object the longer it takes for the sound to be reflected. Then the dolphin interprets the distance, size and shape of the object in it’s bulbous forehead.

When there is poor visibility in the water dolphins use echolocation to get around safely.

Dolphins can make high and low sound frequencies. The higher sound frequencies are for echolocation and the lower sound frequencies are for communicating.

When dolphins hear a distress call they go to it to look for a friend or relative in trouble. If a dolphin is sick other dolphins will help lift the dolphin to the surface for air. Elephant To communicate elephants use all their senses which are hearing, smelling, seeing, touching and the ability to detect vibrations.
Elephants communicate with their voice, body language, their tail, their ears and their trunk.

Elephants position their trunks to be defensive or to threaten. They also use their trunks to touch and smell.

Female elephants let out a smell to let the males know they are ready to mate. The male elephants are able to smell the odour in the air.

Excitement and joy is expressed when the elephants flap their ears. When they do this it makes quite a loud sound, this sound also signals to other elephants that they want their attention. Their ears also help block some of the sun off their body.

If elephants recognise each other they greet one another with quiet rumbling or purring. This sounds like a running diesel engine.

When an elephant is feeling anxious, going to attack or being attacked they trumpet.
Elephants are able to be identified by their relatives from their calls. These calls carry information on their sexuality, body condition, and identity. An elephant calling can be heard from up to 10 kilometres away. Monkeys This term I read a book called Taronga. It is a story that is set in what the author calls the ‘Last Days’. The ‘Last Days’ is in the future in a time when resources were scarce and people had to scavenge for food. ‘Taronga’ is about a boy who can telepathically control animals.

The main themes from the book were how to be brave in difficult circumstances, friendship and the battle between good and evil.

I really enjoyed this book. It was hard to predict what would happen next. The book made me sad when innocent people got killed. It was a relief when the protagonist, Ben was threatened by some big scary tigers and was able to telepathically control them. It was very action packed and hard to put down. I would definitely recommend this book to anyone in senior primary school.

It was a fantastic book and I would give it a score of nine out of ten. The reason that I did not award it ten, was because sometimes it was hard to keep up with who was who. My creative writing piece is set in the past when there was no cancer treatment. It is about an 8 year old boy called Zac who is diagnosed with cancer. The doctors do have one potential cure. Zac is injected with an untested cancer treatment. Later on he finds that the cure has mucked up his brain which causes him to be able to speak with monkeys and not humans. The rest of the story is about how the main character, Zac, communicates with the monkeys and his relationship with them. At the end of the story he is told by the doctors that he is able to communicate with humans again and that he doesn't have a trace of cancer in his system. For my fine arts I painted all my animals and got the sounds that they make. The materials I used are: the pictures and sounds from the computer, tracing paper, transparency, a pencil, some paint, a torch, and of course a canvas.

First I retrieved the pictures and sounds of the animals from the computer.
Then I traced them onto transparency.
After that I set up the transparency with the outline of the animal on it in front of the canvas.
I set up the torch in the position that I prefer so the light is shining through the transparency.
The torch then projected the picture of the animal onto the canvas. By moving the torch around I was able to move the projected image up and down and side to side. I could also enlarge and decrease the size.
While it was being projected I traced the lines on the canvas.
I did all this 3 more times till I had my four animals on the canvas.
After that I painted the animals. On Sunday I finally finished my Fine Arts after many long hours. Now I am just finishing my speech and Prezi. Presentation day is in two days!!!!!!!!!! My first topic idea question was 'what is wheat in 2012?' because apparently scientists tried to process wheat for the starving people around the world. It didn't turn out too good, so now wheat isn't very good for you. That topic would be very difficult because there wouldn't be enough information. Now my topic is 'how do animals communicate.' I think it will be very interesting for me and when I present, for the rest of the class. I just started and everything is going good so far. 12/9/12 20/7/12 I'm really proud of what I did on the weekend for my fine arts. On Saturday I worked for 2 hours and on Sunday I worked for 8 HOURS non stop!! 13/8/12 My research material was sourced from the internet, youtube, books and 'la foret des singes' in Rocamadour, France. La foret des singes means 'the monkey forest.' At 'la foret des singes' I learnt the hard way not to make this face to a Macaque. I chose to use this picture for my pop art because it was a good way to show a simple form of animal communication. Can anyone guess what this expression means? It is a
signal!! Later on I was threatened by many more monkeys and one of them scratched me. I was lucky the scratch didn't get infected.
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