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unit_1_Linux_v2

إعداد : م.محمد سالم الوهاشي "أتمنى الدعاء بالمغفرة لي و لوالدي" حاسب آلي الي 1 مقررات حاسب 1 مقررات للتواصل m.s.wahashi@gmail.com
by

Mohammed Salem

on 8 October 2016

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Transcript of unit_1_Linux_v2

ﻰﻟﻭﻷﺍ ﺓﺪﺣﻮﻟﺍ
ﺲﻜﻨﻴﻟ ﺔﻤﻈﻧﺃ ﻭ ﺓﺮﺤﻟﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻟﺍ
ﻞﺧﺪﻣ
ﺲﻜﻨﻴﻟ ﻲﻫ ﺓﺮﺤﻟﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻟﺍ
ﺓﺮﺤﻟﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﺪﺣﺃ ﺲﻜﻨﻴﻟ
خيرات
ﻮﻫ ﺓﺮﺤﻟﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﺓﺮﻜﻓ ﺃﺪﺑ ﻦﻣ ﻝﻭأ
1990 ﻡﺎﻋ ﺍﺪﻨﻠﻨﻓ ﻲﻓ ﻲﻜﻨﻴﺴﻠﻫ ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﻦﻣ ﺐﻟﺎﻃ

و "ﺲﻜﻨﻴﻟ" ﻩﺎﻤﺳﺍ ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﺀﺎﺸﻧﺈﺑ ﻡﺎﻗ ﺚﻴﺣ
ﺖﻧﺮﺘﻧﻻﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻪﻌﺿﻭ ﻭ ,ﺭﺪﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﺮﺣ ﻪﻠﻌﺟ

Linus Torvalds
University of Helsinki
ﺓﺮﺤﻟﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﻡﻮﻬﻔﻣ
ﻡﺪﺨﺘﺴﻤﻠﻟ ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺒﻟﺍ ﺓﺮﻔﺷ ﺽﺮﻋ ﻭ ﺔﺣﺎﺗﺇ
ﺔﻘﻠﻐﻤﻟﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﻡﻮﻬﻔﻣ
ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺒﻟﺍ ﺓﺮﻔﺷ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻉﻼﻃﻹﺍ ﻦﻣ ﻡﺪﺨﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﻊﻨﻣ
ﺔﻘﻠﻐﻤﻟﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﺺﺧﺭ
EULA ﺮﻴﺧﻷﺍ ﻡﺪﺨﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﺼﺧﺭ - 1
,ﺮﻴﻓﻮﻟﺍ ﺢﺑﺮﻠﻟ ﻰﻌﺴﺗ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻛﺮﺸﻟﺍ ﻢﻈﻌﻣ ﺎﻫﺪﻤﺘﻌﺗ
,ﺞﺘﻨﻤﻟﺍ ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍﺔﺼﺧﺭ ﻊﻴﺑ ﻲﻨﻌﺗ ﻲﻫ ﻭ
ﺞﺘﻨﻤﻟﺍ ﺮﻴﺟﺄﺗ ﻭﺃ ﺦﺴﻧ ﻭﺃ ﻊﻴﺑ ﻚﻟ ﻖﺤﻳ ﻻ ﻭ
.ﺪﺣﺃ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﻊﻠﻄﺗ ﻻ ﺍﺮﺳ ﺞﺘﻨﻤﻠﻟ ﺱﺎﺳﻷﺍ ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺒﻟﺍ ﺓﺮﻔﺸﺑ ﻆﻔﺘﺤﺗ ﺔﻛﺮﺸﻟﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺎﻤﻛ
PATENTS ﺔﻳﺮﺼﺤﻟﺍ ﻉﺍﺮﺘﺧﻹﺍ ﺓﺀﺍﺮﺑ -2
,ﺔﺠﺘﻨﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﻛﺮﺸﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻪﻟﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳﺍ ﻭ ﺞﺘﻨﻤﻟﺍ ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ ﺮﺼﺤﺑ ﻡﻮﻘﺗ
, ﻦﻴﻌﻣ ﺽﺮﻤﻟ ﺀﺍﻭﺩ ﻑﺎﺸﺘﻛﺎﺑ ﺩﺮﻓ ﻭﺍ ﺔﻛﺮﺷ ﻡﻮﻘﺗ ﻥﺃ ﻚﻟﺫ ﻝﺎﺜﻣ ﻭ
ﺀﺍﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ ﺪﺣﻻ ﻖﺤﻳ ﻼﻓ ,ﺔﻳﺮﺼﺤﻟﺍ ﻉﺍﺮﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﻭﺀﺍﺮﺑ ﻝﺎﻨﻳ ﻭ
ﺮﺧﺁ ﺺﺨﺷ ﺀﺍﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﻒﺸﺘﻛﺍ ﻮﻟ ﻰﺘﺣ ,ﺔﻛﺮﺸﻟﺍ ﻥﺫﺈﺑ ﻻﺇ ﻪﺟﺎﺘﻧﺇ ﻭ
CopyRights ﺦﺴﻨﻟﺍ ﻕﻮﻘﺣ ﺔﺼﺧﺭ -3
,ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻟ ﺞﺘﻨﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﺒﺴﻧ ﻲﻨﻌﺗ ﻭ ,ﺎﻬﻠﻤﺠﻤﺑ ﺓﺪﻴﺟ ﺔﺼﺧﺭ ﻲﻫ
,ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻣ ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻉﺍﺪﺑﻹﺍ ﺮﺼﺣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻊﺠﺸﺗ ﺪﻗ ﺎﻬﻧﺃ ﻻﺇ
ﻖﺘﺸﻣ ﺞﺘﻨﻣ ﺮﻳﻮﻄﺗ ﻦﻴﺣ ﻪﻴﻟﺇ ﺓﺩﻮﻌﻟﺍ ﻒﻟﺆﻤﻟﺍ ﺐﻠﻄﻳ ﻥﺃ ﻚﻟﺫ ﻝﺎﺜﻣ ﻭ
ﻒﻟﺆﻤﻟﺍ ﻭﺃ ﺮﺷﺎﻨﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﻲﻄﺧ ﻥﺫﺈﺑ ﻻﺇ...ﻞﻳﺪﻌﺗ ﻭﺃ ﺦﺴﻧ ﻭﺃ ﻞﻘﻧ ﺯﻮﺠﻳ ﻻ ﺐﺘﻜﻳ ﻥﺄﺑ ﻚﻟﺫ ﻭ
ﺓﺮﺣﻟﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﺺﺧﺭ
,ﻪﺗﺎﺒﺘﻜﻣ ﻭ ﻪﺗﺎﻧﻮﻜﻣ ﻊﻴﻤﺠﺑ ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺒﻟﺍ ﺓﺮﻔﺷ ﺢﺘﻓ ﻚﻨﻣ ﺐﻠﻄﺘﺗ ﺔﺼﺧﺮﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ
ﻰﻟﺇ ﺮﻴﺸﻳ ﻥﺃ ﺔﺼﺧﺮﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﻨﺒﻣ ﺓﺮﻔﺷ ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺳﺎﺑ ﻡﻮﻘﻳ ﺺﺨﺷ ﻱﺃ ﻦﻣ ﺐﻠﻄﺘﺗ ﺎﻤﻛ
ﻡﺰﻠﺗ ﻻ ﺎﻬﻧﺃ ﺎﻤﻛ ,ﻞﻣﺎﻛ ﻞﻜﺸﺑ ﺓﺮﻔﺸﻟﺍ ﺢﺘﻔﻳ ﻥﺃ ﻭ , ﺓﺮﻔﺸﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﻫ ﻦﻣ ﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ ﻪﻧﺃ
ﺎﻳﺩﺎﻣ ﻼﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﺐﻠﻄﺗ ﻥﺃ ﻚﻟ ﻖﺤﻳ ﻞﺑ , ﻲﻧﺎﺠﻣ ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺒﻟﺍ ﻥﻮﻜﻳ ﻥﺃ
ﺓﺮﺤﻟﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﺺﺧﺭ ﻦﻴﻧﺍﻮﻗ
ﺀﺎﺷ ﻰﺘﻣ ﺽﺮﻏ ﻱﻷ ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺒﻟﺍ ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ ﺔﻳﺮﺣ ﻡﺪﺨﺘﺴﻤﻠﻟ -1
ﻪﺗﺎﺟﺎﻴﺘﺣﺍ ﺐﺳﺎﻨﻴﻟ ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺒﻟﺍ ﻞﻳﺪﻌﺗ ﺔﻳﺮﺣ ﻡﺪﺨﺘﺴﻤﻠﻟ -2
ﻡﺪﺨﺘﺴﻤﻠﻟ ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺒﻟﺍ ﺓﺮﻔﺷ ﺔﺣﺎﺗﺇ -3
ﻡﻮﺳﺭ ﻞﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻭﺃ ﺎﻧﺎﺠﻣ ﻦﻳﺮﺧﻵﺍ ﻊﻣ ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺒﻟﺍ ﺔﻛﺭﺎﺸﻣ ﺔﻳﺮﺣ ﻡﺪﺨﺘﺴﻤﻠﻟ -4
ﺕﻼﻳﺪﻌﺘﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﻦﻴﻣﺪﺨﺘﺴﻤﻟﺍ ﻊﺘﻤﺠﻣ ﺪﻴﻔﺘﺴﻳ ﺚﻴﺤﺑ ,ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺒﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻟﺪﻌﻣ ﺦﺴﻧ ﻊﻳﺯﻮﺗ ﺔﻳﺮﺣ ﻡﺪﺨﺘﺴﻤﻠﻟ -5
ﺓﺮﺤﻟﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﺎﻳﺍﺰﻣ
ﻲﻟﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﺎﻣﻷﺍ -1
ﺓﺮﺤﻟﺍ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﻡﺍﺪﺨﺘﺳﺍ ﺪﺋﺍﻮﻋ
ﻱﺩﺎﻤﻟﺍ ﺪﺋﺎﻌﻟﺍ -1
Red Hat ﺕﺎﻫﺪﻳﺭ ﺔﻛﺮﺷ
IBM ﺔﻛﺮﺷ
FireFox ﺲﻛﻭﺮﻳﺎﻓ ﺢﻔﺼﺘﻣ
ﻦﻳﺮﺧﻵﺍ ﺕﺍﺮﺒﺧ ﻦﻣ ﺓﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﻹﺍ -2
ﻲﻨﻔﻟﺍ ﻢﻋﺪﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺰﻴﻛﺮﺘﻟﺍ -3
ﺔﻔﻠﻜﺗ ﻞﻗﻷﺍ ﻞﻳﺪﺒﻟﺍ -4
ﻞﻗﺃ ﺭﺎﻌﺳﺃ -5
ﻞﻴﻐﺸﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻋﺮﺳ -2
ﻝﺎﻄﻋﻷﺍ ﺔﻠﻗ -3
ﺔﻔﻠﻜﻟﺍ ﺽﺎﻔﺨﻧﺍ -4
ﻉﻼﻃﻼﻟ ﺭﺪﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﺣﺎﺗﺇ -5
ﻝﻮﻠﺤﻟﺍ ﻢﻳﺪﻘﺗ ﺔﻋﺮﺳ ﻊﻣ ﺀﺎﻄﺧﻷﺍ ﻒﺸﻛ ﺔﻟﻮﻬﺳ -6
ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻣ ﺕﺎﻐﻟ ﻢﻋﺪﺗ ﺔﻴﻤﻟﺎﻋ -7
ﺕﺎﺳﻭﺮﻳﺎﻔﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻴﻟﺎﺧ ﻪﺒﺷ -8
ﺓﺩﺪﻌﺘﻣ ﺞﻣﺍﺮﺑ ﻭ ﺕﺎﻘﻴﺒﻄﺗ ﺩﻮﺟﻭ -9
ﺚﻳﺪﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺮﻳﻮﻄﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻋﺮﺳ -10
IBM ﻞﺜﻣ ﺔﻴﺨﻳﺭﺎﺗ ﻭ ﺔﻤﺨﺿ ﺕﺎﻛﺮﺷ ﻦﻣ ﻢﻋﺪﻟﺍ ﻲﻘﻠﺗ -11
GPL
General Public License
ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﺤﺘﻧﻻﺍ
ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﺮﻛﺫ ﻥﻭﺩ ﺕﺍﺬﻠﻟ ﺎﻬﺘﺒﺴﻧ ﻭ ﻦﻳﺮﺧﻵﺍ ﺕﺎﺑﺎﺘﻛ ﻭﺃ ﺭﺎﻜﻓﺍ ﺔﻗﺮﺳ ﻦﻋ ﺓﺭﺎﺒﻋ ﻲﻫ

: ﻉﺍﻮﻧﺃ 6 ﻲﻤﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﺤﺘﻧﻺﻟ ﻭ
ﺮﺸﻨﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻊﺒﻄﻟﺍ ﻕﻮﻘﺣ
ﺔﻔﻟﺆﻤﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﻤﻋﻷﺍ ﺔﻳﺎﻤﺤﻟ ﺔﻴﻧﻮﻧﺎﻗ ﺔﻐﻴﺻ ﻦﻋ ﺓﺭﺎﺒﻋ ﻲﻫ
ﺩﺮﻔﻠﻟ ﻞﻤﻋ ﻪﻧﺃ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻪﻠﻣﺎﻜﺑ ﻦﻳﺮﺧﻵﺍ ﻞﻤﻋ ﻢﻳﺪﻘﺗ ﻢﺘﻳ ﻭ
: ﺥﺎﺴﻨﺘﺳﻷﺍ -1
ﺭﺪﺼﻤﻟﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ﺮﻛﺫ ﻥﻭﺩ ﺩﺪﺤﻣ ﺭﺪﺼﻣ ﻦﻣ ﻩﺮﻴﺒﻛ ﺀﺍﺰﺟﺃ ﺦﺴﻧ ﻪﻴﻓ ﻢﺘﻳ ﻭ
: ﺦﺴﻨﻟﺍ -2
ﺔﻴﺴﻴﺋﺮﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﻠﻜﻟﺍ ﺾﻌﺑ ﺮﻴﻴﻐﺗ ﺪﻌﺑ ﺔﻴﺼﻧ ﻪﻌﻄﻗ ﺦﺴﻧ ﻪﻴﻓ ﻢﺘﻳ ﻭ
: ﻝﺍﺪﺒﺘﺳﻻﺍ -3
ﻪﻴﻟﺇ ﺓﺭﺎﺷﻹﺍ ﻡﺪﻋ ﻭ ﺭﺪﺼﻤﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﺳﺎﺳﻷﺍ ﺕﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﻤﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻅﺎﻔﺤﻟﺍ ﻊﻣ
ﺎﻫﺮﻛﺫ ﻥﻭﺩ ﺓﺪﻳﺪﻋ ﺭﺩﺎﺼﻣ ﻦﻣ ﺀﺍﺰﺟﺃ ﺝﺰﻣ
: ﺝﺰﻤﻟﺍ -4
ﺎﻫﺭﺪﺼﻣ ﺮﻛﺬﻳ ﻢﻟ ﻯﺮﺧﺃ ﻊﻃﺎﻘﻣ ﻊﻣ ﺢﻴﺤﺻ ﻞﻜﺸﺑ ﺎﻫﺭﺪﺼﻣ ﺮﻛﺫ ﺔﻴﺼﻧ ﻊﻃﺎﻘﻣ ﺞﻣﺩ
: ﺞﻳﺰﻤﻟﺍ -5
ﺎﻫﺮﻛﺫ ﻥﻭﺩ ﺔﻘﺑﺎﺴﻟﺍ ﺝﺮﻔﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺑﺎﺘﻛ ﻦﻣ ﺦﺴﻧ
: ﺭﺍﺮﻜﺘﻟﺍ -6
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