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The Thirty Years' War

Ideas advance mankind as well as tear it apart, so was the interpretation of the Bible amongst Protestants and Catholics.
by

Nathan Patulski

on 7 December 2014

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Transcript of The Thirty Years' War

The Thirty Years' War, 1618 - 1648
The Thirty Years' War, 1618 - 1648
The Sword and the Bible
The Sword and the Bible
A series of bloody, and sometimes futile, wars centered within modern day Germany.
Contributed to the end of the feudal system and the end of the Catholic Church's supremacy in Europe.


It also resulted in one of the first major edicts in Europe of religious freedom.
As well as began the process of European nationalism.
However...
1483 - 1546
Father was a skilled man and landlord.
Received an excellent education before going to the University of Erfurt, which he later described as a "beer-house".
In 1505, while returning home he was caught up in a violent thunder storm. "Help! Saint Anna, I will become a monk!"
Became an Augustinian monk in Erfurt that year.
Martin Luther
Areas of Concentration:
Religious ... Division of the Catholic Church.
Social ... Decline of the Feudal System.
Political ... Cuius regio, eius religio.
Worked as a professor of theology at Wittenberg University.
Had access to religious writings for hundreds of years, as well as from almost every level of the Church.
1516, Sale of Indulgences
“As soon as money in the coffer rings,
the soul from purgatory's fire springs."
“[Enter upon the road of the Holy Sepulcher]…for the remission of your sins, with the assurance of the reward of imperishable glory…” Pope Urban II, Council of Clermont, 1095.
First Crusade: Most Noted Example
The Crusades we might understand, but an indulgence for half a year's pay so that a person's soul would enter Heaven from Purgatory in half the time, is harder to justify.
Martin Luther looks through all of the documents at his disposal.
The Ninety-Five Theses, in 1517, which he nails to the door of the All Saints' Church in Wittenberg.
7. God alone forgives sin.
20. The Papacy is forgiving and not God.
21. Indulgences are un-Biblical.
28. Why did Christ die if you can buy forgiveness?
31. How can a piece of paper make you sinless?
What is the place of the Church in the World?
Martin Luther Concludes:

The clergy should only guide the souls of men.
Direct them ethically and morally.
Provide an example of Godly living.
The clergy are not an intermediary between God and men.
Individuals can converse with God.
Your soul is between God and yourself.
Religious
Social
Result:
1520, Martin Luther is excommunicated from the Catholic Church for heresy; approved by Pope Leo X in the bull Decet Romanum Pontificem, in 1521.
The Church quickly divides into camps of status quo and reform.
Martin Luther begins to speak his mind without restraint.
His teachings quickly spread, causing civil unarrest between the populous and with the authorities.
Feudalism
Government Structure
Social Structure
Martin Luther's teachings cause feudalism to begin breaking down:
The Church has no real power over you.
The Church approved rulers, so if the Church has no real power over you how can they choose your ruler?
Confederation of the Holy Roman Empire
Made up of small kingdoms, principalities, duchies, fiefdoms...
The Church struggled with internal strife.
The peasantry began to consider rebellion because they were being exploited, without a choice of religious determination.
Many rulers within the Holy Roman Empire favored Luther's teachings over those of the Church.
The social ladder breaks into fragmented pieces.
Results:
Political
Emperor Charles V attempted to prevent hostilities.
In 1555, the Peace of Augsburg allowed for a limited form of freedom of religion.
Cuius regio, eius religio: ‘The ruler’s domain, the ruler’s religion [is practiced]’.
Those with a different denomination than the ruler had to move.
Calvinism, however, was forming and posed a legal problem.
Did the Peace of Augsburg protect all religions or just Catholicism and Lutheranism?
Emperor Charles V attempted to prevent hostilities.
In 1555, the Peace of Augsburg allowed for a limited form of freedom of religion.
Cuius regio, eius religio: ‘The ruler’s domain, the ruler’s religion [is practiced]’.
Those with a different denomination than the ruler had to move.
Calvinism, however, was forming and posed a legal problem.
Did the Peace of Augsburg protect all religions or just Catholicism and Lutheranism?
Calvinism is tolerated to a point. When large numbers of nobles convert they are condemned for heresy.
Religious fighting commences and threatens to engulf the Empire in civil war.
1618
Emperor Matthias takes the throne and sends envoys to Bohemia to restore order.
They are thrown from Prague Castle some 69ft to the ground by a Protestant assembly.
Troops are ordered to subdue the revolt.
Bohemia swiftly falls into a state of war.
Protestant nations such as Sweden march to the aid of Bohemia.
Catholic France and Spain send troops to aid the Emperor as well as to defend their holdings within the Holy Roman Empire.
The Toll
8 Million are left dead.
Approximately 6,000 castles are destroyed.
50,000 villages are burned.
1/3 all German cities sacked.
1/4 of the population of the Holy Roman Empire died.
1648
The fighting ends through a series of treaties called the Peace of Westphalia.
'Cuius regio, eius religio' included Calvinism.
Individuals could practice their religious beliefs in their home during certain hours.
Territory was handed over to neighboring nations.
Small city-states were granted independence.
Indemnities to other nations.
Certain states would alternate between secular and religious rulers.
War
Muskets increased killing ability with little training needed for the soldiers.
Long range artillery with canister shells.
Use of cavalry in combination with artillery and infantry.
Questions?
Full transcript