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Cell Analogies Collage

Plant Cell; AP Biology; 10.3.2012

Nansi Tran

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of Cell Analogies Collage

What is in a plant? Let's explore the anatomy of a PLANT CELL Under the microscope... In a picture book... To the human eye... Okay.
Let's analyze. Cell Wall Made out of cellulose and lignin.
Surrounds the plasma membrane.
In plants only.
Makes the cell rigid, stiff, and protected. Real-Life Reflection: Like the cell wall, the neck brace helps
provide a stiff structure for protection. The cell wall protects the cell organelles. The neck case protects the precious
bones to allow healing in case of an injury. Vacuole Reinfoces the stiff plant cell wall
Creates/Controls turgor pressure
Fluid-filled sac that stores water, food, and wastes
Occupies most of the cell's volume
Contractile vacuoles of protists expell excess water as well Real-Life Reflection: Vapur (an inflatable water bottle) expands like
a vacuole when filled with water/nutrients.
Vapur is helpful in holding water for athletes
in order for them to keep running.
A vacuole holds water and nutrients for cells
in order for them to keep running. Chloroplast Most important plastids
Converts light energy to sugar and oxygen (photosynthesis)
Site of ATP production Real-Life Reflection: Salt factory workers, like chloroplasts, turn something that would otherwise be of much use, into something that humans are able to endure and devour. Chloroplast turn sunlight (something that is considered "plenty") into sugar and oxygen (something that animals absolutely need). Salt factory workers turn sodium chloride into a salt (something that most humans would consider as a need). Cell Membrane Selective permeability allows the "good stuff" to go in and keeps the "bad stuff" from invading.
Bounds the internal environment of the cell from the external.
Mosaic of proteins bobbing in a fluid bi layer of phospholipids. Real-Life Reflection: When the Berlin Wall was still up and active, its job was like the cell membrane. It's job was to regulate action going between the West and the East. It kept out anything that did not belong, like the cell membrane. Cytoplasm Semi-fluid matrix
Contains organelles of the cell, excluding the nucleus Real-Life Reflection: Like cytoplasm, soil holds things in place. It's a base for living things. Soil is a base for a living plant (with its roots, stem, and leaves). A cytoplasm is a base for living organelles. Nucleus Separate from the other organelles
Stores information about each individual cell
Contains genetic information (DNA)
Mandates cell activities Real-Life Reflection: The City Hall mandates the city. It has information about the jobs, roads, plumbing, and everything else that would be neccessary to run a functional city. It has control over what is going on.
The nucleus, like City Hall, mandates the cell. It has control and information about the cell. Nuclear Envelope Double-layered membrane
Disintegrates during mitosis
Separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm Real-Life Reflection: Like a nuclear envelope, a fish bowl keeps its content safe and separate from the outside. The fish bowl keeps the fish and water from the air.
The nuclear envelope keeps the nuclear and its contents from the cytoplasm. Nucleolus Location where the ribosomal RNA (carrier of instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of protein) is produced.
Dark-shaded area in the nucleus. Real-Life Reflection: A printer machine is a location where information
could be produced. A printer machine could produce a rubric or a letter containing instructions to do certain things. A nucleolus is also a location where information/instructions could be or would be produced. Chromatin Colored substances inside the nucleus.
Packaged DNA that makes it easier to allow mitosis and meiosis.
Serves as a helper to replication. Real-Life Reflection: Like chromatins, vacuum sealers compresses to make for easy travel.
Chromatins compresses DNA to make replication and splitting easy. Vacuum sealers compresses clothes so you can carry less luggages for easy and light travel. Not shown in the diagram... Main importance is in cell motility.
Helps to maintain cell shape.
An organized network of 3 main protein filaments: microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate fibers. Real-Life Reflection: Like a cytoskeleton, bones help the body maintain its shape and structure. The cytoskeleton helps the cell maintain its shape. Mitochondrion Generates energy for the cells to move, divide, replicate, contract, and produce secretes
Sugar is combined with oxygen to produce ATP (the energy)
Has a double outer layer
Location of aerobic respiration Real-Life Reflection: Powerade, like mitochondrions, generates energy to be active. Powerade powers up athletes to improve their athletic performance. Mitochondrions gives the cell energy to make actions possible. Golgi Apparatus Processes protein and packages it to send to where it needs to go
Vesicles move and emerge with the plasma membrane to release external contents Real-Life Reflection: The post office, like the golgi apparatus, also processes and send. The post office processes mails and sorts them to where they need to go before sending it out to the designated destination.
The golgi body is also involved in processing and packaging proteins, and eventually sending them out. Smooth
Endoplasmic Reticulum Has no ribosomes attached
Involved in the synthesis of lipids and hormones
In animals, in the liver, it's in charge of the breakdown of toxins Real-Life Reflection: A butter churn, like a smooth ER, creates lipids(which could be fat, oils, or waxes).
Butter churns create butter.
In another comparison, if talking about animals, butter churns breaks down cream and creates another substance. Smooth ER breaks down toxins in animals. Rough
Endoplasmic Reticulum Has ribosomes attached
Involves in protein synthesis
Proteins are synthesized on the ribosomes and are collected on the ER for transport throughout the cell Real-Life Reflection: The school bus, like rough ER, collects things to transport throughout an area.
School buses collect students and later transports them in a location within the given city boundaries.
A rough ER collects ribosomes and eventually will transport them somewhere within the cell. Ribosome Can float freely or be attacked to the rough ER.
Assemble amino acids into polypeptides.
Balls of RNA and protein.
Site of protein synthesis.
Transfer RNA from the nucleus is comblined with amino acid molecules to create a long protein chain. Real-Life Reflection: Bees, like ribosomes, can fly around or be attached.
Bees could be found flying around or attached to a flower, as a ribosome to a rough ER.
While ribosomes synthesizes protein, bees create honey. What's in an animal cell
that's not in a plant cell... Lysocome Contains digestive enzymes
Functions in the digestion of fats and lipids
Degrade the products of ingestion and worn out organelles
Serves to kill and eat bacteria Real-Life Reflection: Like lysosomes, recycling facilities take in worn out/used things and make them into something useful in society again. Lysosomes breaks down waste products and then comes out with something chucked to the cytoplasm for the cell to use. Centriole Cylinder shaped. Composed of short microtubules.
Part of the cytoskeleton.
Site for sort microtubules and are used in mitosis.
Spins chromosomes. Real-Life Reflection: The Spinning-Jenny, like the centrioles, is a machine for replication and creation.
The machine spins roving and wool into thread. Thread holds the structure for clothes.
Centrioles spins chromosomes in the process of mitosis or replication. The chromosomes hold DNA which holds the foundation and makeup information for everything within the cell. Necessary for locomotion
Helps move fluid or materials past an immobile cell as well as moving a cell or group of cells Real-Life Reflection: Squid testicles, like cilias, perform the function of movement and easy mobility. Living under water, the testicles help the squids move easily.Cilias help cells move easily among each other as well. Helps mobility of the cell
Helps the movement/pushing of things around the cell
Transport with interactions with microtubules Real-Life Reflection: Slave owners, like flagellas, promote activity/movement with a long whip.
Slave owners would use to whip the slaves to get them to respond, work, or move. Flagella, while having the ability to move itself (like slave owners), also has the ability to move things on the external side of the cell as it moves. Now, we know what is within these cells:) Nansi Tran
AP Biology
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