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Layers of Necessity ID Model
Transcript of Layers of Necessity ID Model
ID Model Linda Ensign | George Grahl | Juan Primo Instructional Design (ID) models represent elements and processes involved in learning help instructional professionals to design, plan, and implement instruction Most ID Models tend to be unnecessarily complex and precise (Tessmer & Wedman, 1990) Layers of Necessity offers an alternative A practical approach to instruction The model considers
resources and constraints
available to produce satisfactory results Layers of Necessity ID Model Developers (1990) Martin Tessmer John F. Wedman CITT Director
Colorado University Professor Emeritus
School of Information Science and Learning Technology
University of Missouri The big idea! “based upon the time and resources available, the developer chooses a layer of design and development activities to incorporate into and instructional product or project” (Tessmer & Wedman, 1990, p. 79). This approach to instruction offers an alternative that considers availability of resources to provide a learning solution. Context for use The flexibility of the Layers of Necessity ID model makes it an appropriate choice when time and resources are decisive factors in the decision of how-to approach training The iterative approach of the Layers of Necessity ID model has an additive intention as opposed to trying to reinforce previous instruction. Example A professor needs to learn a new management system four days before the start of classes
Layer 1 would consist of learning to
navigate the user interface
Communicate with students
Layer 2 would consist of learning to
Customize the interface
Manage content (release dates, grade book)
Manage students (controlling access, attendance, and tracking progress) Navigation Content Communication Managing
content Customizing Managing Students repetition is not for the purpose of revising earlier components, but of adding onto the work that was done earlier Layers of Necessity ID Model Advantages represents the practical application of ID models employed by Instructional Designers “on the job.”
It is suitable for Instructional Designers of all skill levels and different approaches to ID from “extremely simplified to highly complex and sophisticated”
It provides ID practitioners with methods sensitive to the constraints of time and resources
It is not a rigid methodology but a dynamic methodology that can be “personalized based on the professional expertise and judgment of the individual designer.” Layers of Necessity ID Model Disadvantages Difficulty to balance attention to layers of design and development
Ensuring that all components inside each layer receive equal considerations.
Because of the open nature of the model, the onus is on the ID to personalize the model according to their expertise and judgment The above guidelines indicate that the Instructional Designer must have a good working knowledge of existing ID models and theories to ensure a successful project.
This infers that this model is a supplement to existing models and not a new model. Little known facts related to the model Winer (1994) reported that despite diversity in how study subjects were introduced to ID, there was a consensus on both the 11 core ID tasks and the necessity to add or delete tasks according to their perceived usefulness.
During two studies of elementary schoolteachers, Earle (1996) found that the adoption of the layers-of-necessity approach to ID was one way for teachers and instructional designers to cooperate during the planning of instruction.
Tessmer and Wedman (1990) do not refer to the Layers of Necessity as a model. Instead, they write that is “a new approach to using existing models and strategies in a practical and integrated manner.” (p. 84).
Tessmer and Wedman (1990) indicate that "the motto 'Better-Cheaper-Faster' - Pick Two' is clearly operative" with reference to their Layers-of-Necessity Model (p. 84).
In 1993 Winer and Vázquez-Abad conducted what was termed as "The Montreal Study" to "enrich the understanding of Tessmer and Wedman's study presented at AERA in 1992. (Winer and Vazquez-Abad, 1995, p. 57) The purpose of the study was for comparison to Tessmer and Wedman's study by asking how often instructional designers followed eleven selected activities in the ID process. Their findings were that "there seem to be a small number of designers who follow all of the steps all of the time. The majority conform to the principle behind the Layers-of-Necessity model. Winer and Vázquez-Abad note that “designers perform more frequently the steps they judge to be most important for a given design project" (1995, p. 64). References Earle, R.S. (1996). Instructional Design Fundamentals as Elements of Teacher Planning Routines: Perspectives and Practices from Two Studies. ERIC (U.S. Dept. of Education). Abstract retrieved from Abstracts in ExLibris Primo through Purdue University Libraries.
GSU. (N.d.). Interview with Martin Tessmer. Retrieved 05 21, 2013, from Georgia State University: http://kathyillian.com/ilt/practitioner_profile_kathy_illian.pdf
Rogoff, R.L. (1984). The training wheel: A simple model for instructional design. The Magazine of Human Resources Development, 21(4), 63-64.
Tessmer, M. & Wedman, J.F. (1990). A Layers-of-Necessity Instructional Development Model. Educational Technology Research and Development, Vol. 38, No. 2 (1990), pp. 77-85. Retrieved fromhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/30219946?origin=JSTOR-pdf
University of Missouri. (2009). SISLT John Wedman Profile. Retrieved 05 21, 2013, from University of Missouri: http://education.missouri.edu/faculty/SISLT/Wedman_John.php
Winer, L.R. (1994). Enriching the Layers of Necessity Model. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 4-8, 1994). Abstract retrieved from Abstracts in ERIC through Purdue Universities Library.(GG)
Winer, L.R. & Vázquez-Abad, J. (1995). The Present and Future of ID Practice (Performance Improvement Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 3 (1995), pp. 55-67. Retrieved from: http://learnanddiscern.com/ProfessionalDevelopment/Readings/thePresentAndFutureOfIDPractice.pdf Each layer (iteration) will
add new learning
increase the quality
require more resources and
more complex ID processes Other interest Professor Tessmer publishing includes work in ID and recreational traveling. He contributes to Backpacker magazine, and has published a few books on this topic. His book collection is available at http://www.goodreads.com/author/show/545130.Martin_Tessmer More about Professor Wedman Professor Wedman is a researches in analogical problem solving, performance support systems, and technology integration in teaching and learning.
His industry credentials include working for Caterpillar as a trainer and consultant