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Education in the 1800s
Transcript of Education in the 1800s
Education in the 1800s
Gender and Religion
Women were discouraged from attending college. When they did enroll, they received a lot less than their male counterparts.
In 1851, female literacy rates were 55% compared to 70% for men.
The 1870 Education Act stressed a curiculum for girls that focused on domestic skills.
Few career options were available to women and most became governesses. For this reason, educating women didn't make a lot of practical sense.
However, governesses were meant to teach girls how to be ladylike. The act of having a job and making money was unladylike, so governess contradicted themselves. Most women simply didn't get jobs, and therefore didn't receive higher education.
Levels of Education
The Civil War Era and Reconstruction
Brown, R. (2011, February 9). Looking at History.
Educational Reforms. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/u-s-history/textbooks/boundless-u-s-history-textbook/religion-romanticism-and-cultural-reform-1820-1860-14/educational-reforms-116/educational-reforms-618-1769/
Wiseman, D., & Cooner, D. (2005). Educational History and Philosophy. In Becoming a teacher in a field-based setting: An introduction to education and classrooms (3rd ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Thomson/Wadsworth.
Education was at the forefront of feminist thinking because if women were educated, they could get their own job and support themselves.
In the 1850's, boarding schools for girls began popping up. These schools offered subjects like Latin and Science.
In 1863, feminists succeeded in persuading Cambridge to open it's public examinations to girls. Examinations were seen as a means of raising academic performance and feminists believed that if girls weren't held to the same rigorous academic expectations as boys, then female education wouldn't be taken seriously.
Women saw education as the key to a broad range of activities and freedoms, as a means for training for paid employment, of alleviating the boredom of everyday idleness and improving their ability to fight for the extension of female opportunities in other areas.
The 1800's saw a lot of expansion of education for women.
Horace Mann played a big role in state sponsored public education.
Before Horace Mann, public school curriculum was based on strict Calvinism and concentrated on teaching moral values.
Free, public education was common in New England, but rare in the South, where most education took place at home with tutors or family members.
Horace Mann led the movement to get public schools financed by local property taxes.
He also focused on positive reinforcement in place of punishment.
School provided free and
education to all children.
In hope to improve the lives of poor kids
In 1820 was when secondary schools really began to emerge
The rolls of high schools split,
one to prepare for college the
other to train for work.
By the second half of the 1800s colleges began to gain more attention.
Different fields of education was added to the curriculum.
Women started to be able to gain acceptance into colleges and soon coeducation became normal. By the beginning of the 1900s 1/4 of students were women.
Southerners were also uninterested in public education because they didn't think slaves needed to be educated. As events leading up to the Civil War intensified, Southerners believed that "knowledge is power," and they did not want to give their slaves more power.
Horace Mann proposed a state board to exercise control over public schools. He also advocated for educating without a focus on religion.
Public education caught on much faster in the North than in the South. Most Southerners believed that education was a private matter and that the government shouldn't have anything to do with it.
Because of the lack of public education in the South, social classes became concrete and prohibited mobility.
Military- style discipline was often utilized when teaching younger boys.
Both northern and southern school schedules were often dictated by the agricultural nature of the economy.
Boarding fees and tuition were commonly a part of schooling contracts, though many people couldn't afford the cost.
The Freedman's Bureau
Developed in during the reconstruction era in 1865, it aimed to assist african-americans in the transition from a slave society to a free one.
Facilitated creation of schools and churches
Protected legal rights of freedmen
Negotiated labor contracts
Despite segregation and racism, many black schools rivaled their white counterparts in prestige.
However, black freedmen suffered the burdens of supporting their schools by means of weightier taxes.
donated land and services
Andrew Johnson's Impeachment
Many one roomed school houses also served as the local chapel on Sundays, and meeting places for local people and activities.
Buildings were made of a simple frame construction.
Had a wood burning stove as the only source for heat and the bathrooms were in an outhouse.
Set up of School Houses:
A single teacher taught grades 1st-8th together. The youngest sat in the front, while the oldest sat in the back.
For many, education ended just after eighth grade, in order to graduate, students would have to pass a final exam.
At some schools, boys and girls entered through separate doors, they were also kept separate for lessons.
The children required to dress appropriately which we know it as a dress code.
The school years were much shorter back then, depending on if students were needed to help their families harvest crops. Attendance was usually only 59%.
School days typically started at 9am and ended around 2pm-4pm.
One hour in the middle of the day for recess and lunch.
Recess usually consisted of games such as jump rope, hopscotch, marbles, bean bag toss, and hoop rolling.
There was no transportation to get to school.
Most schoolhouses were built to serve students living within 4 to 5 miles, which was considered close enough for them to walk.
No lunch was provided by the school, even if families had the money for it.
Kids brought their lunches to school in a metal pail and everyone drank water from a bucket filled by the older boys using the same tin cup.
Teachers taught subjects including reading, writing, arithmetic, history, grammar, rhetoric, and geography.
The lessons included oral reading, memorization, recitation, figuring on slates, mental arithmetic, and penmanship.
Being a Teacher in the 1800's:
Teachers sometimes lived with their students families.
This process was called "boarding round" and it often involved teachers moving from one students house to the next as often as every week.
Adults became teachers without any particular skill except sometimes in the topic they were teaching.
It was a common belief that since woman raised children they would be good teachers too.
School Houses, Curriculum, and Teachers:
Leisch, Juanita. "Eduation in the 1800s." Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, 1 Jan. 1994. Web. 17 Feb. 2015. <http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/on-the-homefront/culture/education.html>.
"The Quest for Education - Separate Is Not Equal." The Quest for Education - Separate Is Not Equal. Web. 17 Feb. 2015. <http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/2-battleground/quest-for-education-1.html>.
Wiseman, Donna L., and Donna D. Cooner. "Educational History and Philosophy." Becoming a Teacher in a Field-based Setting: An Introduction to Education and Classrooms. 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub., 1999. Print.
Education was not an expectation for minorities
Children of slaves received zero to no education because they were always working
In the early 1800s, African American parents wanted their children to attend their own school without white people
1st school that opened to educate only African Americans was in Philadelphia in 1820
1st college that opened to educate African Americans was Oberlin College
1st African American leader was Booker T. Washington; he was educated at Hampton Institute & he then founded the Tuskagee Institute
The 2nd leader was W.E.B. Dubois. He taught at Wilberforce College and Atlanta University; He founded the NAACP
Asian Americans were prohibited from schools as late as 1860
Asians also went to their own segregated schools; 1st school to educate Asians was in San Francisco in 1870
Last group that did not have equal rights were the Native Americans
Schools wanted Native Americans to get their Christian Education but they refused
They were also supposed to attend school to get away from their tribal ways
The schools wanted the Native Americans to adopt the white culture
The Native Americans said their culture was just fine and they refused the white culture
Boarding schools became very popular with the Native Americans & English and American History were heavily focused on
Williams, Robert. W.E.B. Dubois. 2015. Web.
Booker T. Washington Biography. 2015. Web.