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Transcript of IGCSE History
League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles
Rise of the Nazis
The First World War
Depth Study: Germany
The Cold War
Cuban Missile Crisis
Berlin Wall Built
The Weimar Republic
Treaty of Versailles
Left and Right
Born in Austria, 1889
Bad relationship with his father, loved his mother
At 16, left school and went to Vienna to study art, didn't make it into the school he wanted
Between 1909 and 1914, lived on the streets in Vienna, developed his hatred for Jews
Joined the army when the war began and served with distinction, earning the Iron Cross
Unable to accept the armistice or Treaty of Versailles
Hated the Weimar Republic, looked back to the "Glory Days" of the Kaiser
Stayed in the army after the war and worked for the intelligence services, here he came across the DAP, (German Workers Party)
Liked the ideas and joined in 1919
The Munich Pustsch - 1923
Success or fail?
Mein Kampf and the growth of Fascism
The Great Depression and Rise of the Nazis
The Great Depression
Disillusionment with Democracy
The idea that people agree with each other and are willing to support these people not because of their views, (Positive C0hesion), but because they disliked the same things. "You hate what I hate, there for you can't be too bad!"
Hitler as Der Führer
How he came to power
The Reichstag Fire
The Night of the Long Knives
How the Nazis controlled Society
SS - Schutzstaffel
Winning Hearts and Minds
Reich Chamber of Culture
Life in Nazi Germany
Persecution of minorities
"Work and Bread"
Bunde Deusche Madeil
The Olympic Games
Terms of the Treaty
German land and colonies
Germany's armed forces
Had to take the blame for starting the war. Germans found this extremely harsh.
Agreed in 1921 to be £6.6 billion
Overseas empire was taken away, former German colonies became mandates, controlled by the League of Nations.
Germany cut down
Alsace-Lorraine to France
North Schleswig to Denmark (plebicite)
Upper Silesia, West Prussia and Possen to Poland
Polish Corridor created
Union with Austria forbidden
Rhineland demilitarized zone
Saarland run by the League of Nations
Total loss: 10% of land, all overseas colonies, 12.5% of population 16% of coalfields, almost 50% steel and iron industry
Army limited to 100,000 mes
No armored vehicles, submarines or aircraft
Navy could only have 6 battleships
Rhineland demilitarized, a buffer between Germany and France
Horror and outrage was the reaction of most.
Germans did not feel they had started or lost the war.
The army was a source of pride, 100,000 men was laughable.
The loss of land was a loss of pride, but a huge economic blow to the country.
Did Wilson's 14 points not apply to them? What about self-determination?
'Diktat': they had no representation, no voice or comment.
At first the government refused to sign. The Navy sunk their own ships in protest.
Ebert, the standing leader consulted Hindenburg, an old, experienced army commander, he said they could not win. Britain, France and the USA threatened invasion if Germany did not agree by the deadline. To certain defeat in war, or the signing of a crippling treaty? Ebert agreed to sign on November 11 1918.
The Treaty was singed on June 28 1919.
Impact on Germany
White Rose movement
Top jobs were given to Nazis who reported to Himmler
'Snooping' - listening for voices against Nazis
Crimes commited by Nazis ignored
Court system rigged so Anti-Nazis could not gain a fair trial
Hitler's personal bodyguard
Death's Head - Concentration Camps
Waffen SS - elite units in the army
Gauleiter - police force
Not used for systemic killing in the 1930s
Kept constant threat
Lead by Reinhard Heydrich
Branch of SS
List of people to get rid of
Largely hated by ordinary people
Could arrest people and send them to c. camps without a trial
Germans informed on each other because they believed that they would find out anyway and it got them in good with the Nazis
Nazis spent vast sums of money re-arming Germany --> led to economic boom and national pride
roads, houses and railways created jobs building
Dr. Hjalamar Schact organized finances
Brought economic stability
Industrial production rose form 34.8 billion marks in 1932 to 58.3 billion in 1935
Government contracts were available, so big businesses were able to make huge profits
Suppressed trade unions and their demands on employers
More professional jobs and better for savers
Ripped up ToV
National pride again
Schoenheit der Arbeit (Beauty of Labor)
Kraft durch Freude (Strength through Joy)
Provided leisure opportunities for hard workers
Feared loosing their job, so they kept their head down and worked
Reich-Entailed-Farm-Laws -- supposed to defend farmers because people weren't finding any profit in farming
Higher wages for factory workers
People moving to cities
- Ein Volk - Ein Reich - Ein Fuhrer -
Aimed to keep people focused on sucess
Eager to encourage radio listenership --> developed cheap radios, this made sure everyone could afford one
Made it easy to agree
Hitler seemed a father-like figure, looking out for them
Propaganda is not just telling lies, can reinforce prejudice by bringing sharper focus
Nazis used mass media to create a unified society
Believed in Hitler emphatically
Reinforced both terror and success
Was established by Goebbles.
In order to be published in art, music, theater, film or music, the Reich Chamber of Culture had to approve the piece
Control of newspapers - must be approved
Only Nazi-approved literature --> Students burn books 10 May, 1933
1932, 4.5 million radios in Germany, by 1942, over 16 million
Powerful way of spreading Nazi ideas and propaganda
People heard Hitler in their homes
Jazz and jewish composers were banned
Woman film writer , close to Goebbles - 'Olympia'
Films closely monitored, had to carry a pro-Nazi message
Anti-Semantic movies such as the 'Eternal Jew' created
Organized by Goebbles - massive, awe-inspiring spectacles
Rallies like the Nuremberg Rally were to show off Nazi organization and power
Speeches by Hitler, marching and parading of Hitler Youth and SA/SS
(mentally and physically)
The Perfect German
Aryan, blonde and blue eyed, strong, tall, and handsome
They were the "master race" and should not mix with the sub-humans as they would become contaminated
Kinder - Küche - Kirche
-homes set up for unmarried women to become pregnant by a racially pure SS soldier
Prominent Nazi women
Leni Refenstall - film directer, 'Olympia' about 1936 Berlin Olympics
Gertrude Shultz Klink - head of Nazi Womens' Bureau
The "perfect Nazi woman"
'Set the Husband Free'
A law almost passed by the Nazis that a woman should have her children with her husband (at least 4) and then set the husband free to get more women pregnant.
Role of Nazi women
Nazis women's job was solely to increase the population of Germany so Hitler could have a bigger army of Aryan men.
They should only be concerned with the home life.
have a job
have pierced ears
use contraception or abort
go to church
have children out of wed-lock
raise their children with Nazi ideals
There was much focus on the traditional life for women, with them staying at home and doing traditional womanly tasks, however with 'set the husband free' the Nazi views were not so traditional. Children out of wed-lock is not traditional
Throughout Nazi reign the women's role was in the home --> girls had grown up knowing their role
During the war Nazis needed women to do jobs that the men would normally do, but they were fighting --> young women who had grown up hearing their place was in the home were unwilling
Strength through Joy
Beauty of Labor
German Labor Front
National Labor Service
- the amount of free time allotted to a German worker per year
- organized events and prizes for hard workers
- Nazi trade union lead by Dr. Robert Ley
- propaganda organization for workers
- country able to support itself economically --> Nazis would be self sufficient when war comes
(Deutsche Arbeitsfront, DAF)
(Schönheit der Arbeit, SdA)
- men between 18 and 25 spent 6 months doing public service jobs
Poland and Vilna
The League: Success or Fail?
The League imposed sanctions on Italy after they invaded Abyssinia but these were ineffective as they did not include oil. Britain and France had a secret agreement that they were not willing to take action (the Hoare-Laval Plan), which completely undermined the League.
The League failed over Manchuria where it took 12 months for the Lytton Report to be submitted, in which time Japan fell from the League's line of sight and so Japan was not condemned. When the Report was finally files, Japan left the League.
The League was ignored when it requested Poland to withdraw from Vilna. Poland refused and remained in Vilna.
Mussolini was ordered to withdraw from Corfu, which he did. The Greeks were made to pay compensation and Mussolini used his influence with the Conference of Ambassadors. This undermined the League.
1921 - The League helped to arrange a plebiscite in Upper Silesia after both Germany and Poland claimed the land. Both accepted the League's decision of splitting the area in accordance with the plebiscite and ensuring services to both areas.
Sweden and Finland disputed about the Aaland Islands. The League was able to resolve them and give the islands to Finland. War was avoided and both sides accepted the decision.
Members of the League:
Argentina (left in 1921 on rejection of an Argentine resolution that all sovereign states be admitted to the League. It resumed full membership in 1933 )
Brazil (withdrew 14 June 1926)
British Empire separate membership for:
India (then under British rule and including the region of present-day India, Bangladesh, Burma, and Pakistan).
Chile (withdrew 14 May 1938)
Czechoslovakia (left 15 March 1939)
El Salvador (withdrew 11 August 1937)
France (Vichy France withdrew 18 April 1941; withdrawal not recognised by Free French forces)
Guatemala (withdrew 26 May 1936)
Haiti (withdrew April 1942)
Honduras (withdrew 10 July 1936)
Italy (withdrew 11 December 1937)
Japan (withdrew 27 March 1933)
Nicaragua (withdrew 27 June 1936)
Paraguay (withdrew 23 February 1935)
Persia (known as Iran from 1934)
Peru (withdrew 8 April 1939)
Romania (withdrew July 1940)
Siam (known as Thailand from 1939)
Spain (withdrew May 1939)
Venezuela (withdrew 12 July 1938)
Austria (joined 15 December 1920; left 13 March 1938)
Bulgaria (joined 16 December 1920)
Costa Rica (joined 16 December 1920; withdrew 22 January 1925)
Finland (joined 16 December 1920) 
Luxembourg (joined 16 December 1920)
Albania (joined 17 December 1920)
Estonia (joined 22 September 1921)
Latvia (joined 22 September 1921)
Lithuania (joined 22 September 1921)
Hungary (joined 18 September 1922; withdrew 14 April 1939)
Irish Free State (joined 10 September 1923, known as Ireland from 1937)
Abyssinia (joined 28 September 1923)
Dominican Republic (joined 29 September 1924)
Germany (joined 8 September 1926; withdrew 19 October 1933)
Mexico (joined 23 September 1931)
Turkey (joined 18 July 1932)
Kingdom of Iraq (joined 3 October 1932)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (joined 18 September 1934; expelled 14 December 1939)
Afghanistan (joined 27 September 1934)
Ecuador (joined 28 September 1934)
Kingdom of Egypt (joined 26 May 1937)
*The USA never joined*
Germany joins and withdraws
Soviet Union joins and is expelled
Rise and Fall of Communism
People free to start business
opportunity for all
Choice of party - Democracy
any profit is individual's
great difference in wealth, but majority well off
no private businesses allowed to profit from work of others
fairness and equality for all
one party government
wealth equally shared, poorer
Struggle for Indochina
During WWII, Japanese seized France's South East Asian Empire
Local people resisted the Japanese
1945 Japan surrenders, Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam independant. France objected.
1945 Japan surredders to British troops in Saigon, France reclaims colony
Ho Chi Minh organized resistance
United States backed France to stop Communism
Elite paratroopers from the Foreign Region set up camp to trap the Viet Minh at Dien Bein Phu
1946 - 1954 the US gives over $1 billion to aid France
Dien Bien Phu
French surrounded by Viet Minh and seiged for 6 weeks
After bitter fighting French surrendered
Survivors marched to prison camp
of 16,500 taken, 3000 survived and some may still be held today
Geneva Peace Talks 1954
Divide Vietnam into two parts along 17th parallel
North Vietnam Communist
South Vietnam Republic under Ngo Dinh Diem - a dictator who refused to hold elections
US gets involved
Diem's government made up of rich, Catholic landowners with connections to the French
Deim's rule was harsh and currupt
Used US aid to bribe opponents
US arms sold to Communists
Viet Cong set up to support Diem, terrorists who tortured and killed opponents
Civil War breaks out between Viet Cong and peasents
1962 - President Kennedy sends 10,000 "advisers", (soldiers) to help
1963 - Diem eventually overthrown and killed
President Kennedy assassinated
Lyndon B Johnson, (vice president) wanted to increase aid to South Vietnam
Full Scale War
Gulf of Tonkin 1964
The Tonkin Resoltion 1964
Loss of "Hearts and Minds"
North Vietnamese Patrol boats opened fire on US ships in the Gulf of Tonkin
Congress gave Johnson the power to deploy troops and bomb Vietnam
First combat troops arrive 1965, by 1969 there were 500,000
Most South Vietnamese supported the Viet Cong (NLF)
US thought they would move peasants to these Hamlets to prevent them from being indoctrinated
Moved from their land -> caused much resentment
Johnson needed to stop the North Vietnamese supplying the Viet Cong
Us dropped more bombs on Vietnam than through the course of the whole of WWII
US bombed railways and similar centers they had in WWII, but often bombed schools and hospitals on accident -> used against them in publicity
Viet Cong had no aircraft or heavy artillery.
They had experience with the French and determination in their cause
supplied with AK47s from China
Hid in the jungle, had no uniforms, spoke one language and blended into the peasents
Hid in a system of of tunnels stretching over 200 miles underground and could fire at Americans and retreat
Rooms, storage and even hospitals below
air vents hidden in bushes
entrance could be hidden under cooking pot or underwater
traps set for Americans
North Vietnamese brought weapons and supplies through the jungle on foot or bicycle on the Ho Chi Minh trail
Jungle was too dense for the trail or people to be seen by air
"Agent Orange" was dropped by Americans over the whole country to kill vegetation and crops -> people are still dying from food poisoning
Napalm used in the form of flame throwers and fire bombs burned skin and scorched flesh in addition to leveling the jungle
Heavy handed American tactics only strengthened dislike and Vietnamese increasingly saw the Viet Cong as their protecters
America Looses support and the War
Operation Rolling Thunder
Support from locals
Motivation and Commitment
Fewer of them, but well trained and experienced. Knew their jungle well unlike the Americans who were not on home turf. The Americans started out as better trained, but as the war drug on, young, untrained draftees were sent in.
Why did America loose the war?
By far superior air force, artillery and bombs than the Viet Cong's AK47s
Supplied well with excellent equipment. The Viet Cong did have weapons form China coming along the Ho Chi Minh trail, but not nearly as much.
Supplies and Equipment
Determined to win freedom while the Americans were mostly draft soldiers who didn't believe in the cause or didn't even understand the situation
Guerrilla tactics, sneaking about the jungle and hiding in tunnels while tired scared Americans blundered above
Trusted by peasants and seen as protectors and heroes while they had lost belief in the Americans as they were not doing anything but burning and killing.
Got help from other countries like China while America was on her own
Viet Cong Superiority
The War drags on
1968 - Viet Cong launched a major assault on the Tet New Year in over 100 cities
American embassy in Saigon had to be taken back room by room
4500 Viet Cong tied down South Vietnamese for two days
Bitter street fighting beamed onto American Televisions and people were very upset
Was a military disaster for the VC. They thought the populace would rise up and join, but they were crushed
Media played out American Soldiers as scared and unprepared but killing civilians and children and burning homes. This began the Peace movement.
1986 - search and destroy mission launched to My Lai, what was believed to be a VC hiding place
Soldiers were told that women and children would be out at the Marketplace, but they werent.
5000 villagers were killed, women babies and old people.
There were no VC in the village
Images leaked to the media and were received with horror and outrage
In November 700,000 anti-war protestors marched on Washington
Flower Power and the Hippie movement were in full swing
Draft was introduced. Poor young black men targeted
Middle Class Americans opposed this
By 1967, 160 men were KIA in one week.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Communist Eastern Countries
Led by the USA
Led by the USSR
M A D
Both sides could destroy the world many times over.
Both superpowers had enough nuclear weapons to have MAD
scared of each other
Guaranteed Security because they couldn't do anything without being destroyed themselves
'Flexible Response' in submarines to launch nukes even if the country was destroyed
The Russians thought Kennedy was weak and inexperienced
CIA found indisputable evidence of nuclear bombs in Cuba
Bay of Pigs -> Kennedy gave order to remove Castro, complete disaster
After the fall of Batista, Fidel Castro came to power. Communist who nationalized industry, upsetting the US
Castro saw US as a threat and looked to the USSR for help. Wanted Khrushchev to test Kennedy
US blockaded Cuba from Soviet ships coming in
ICBMs ready to fire
B52 nuclear bombers prepared, 1/8 airborne at all times
Kennedy appears on Television announcing that if a missile was launched from Cuba,the Us would demolish the USSR
Mobilized troops for possible invasion of Cuba
Soviet ships stop en route to Cuba and return to Russia
Khrushchev proposes the pull out of Cuba if the US removes the blockade and removes nuclear missiles from Turkey
Hotline set up between USSR and USA
Khrushchev lost prestige, China broke from Russia
Kennedy becomes hero
Cuba remained Communist, America left it alone
Both sides more careful
1963 - both sides agree to a nuclear Test Ban Treaty
The Prague Spring
'Communism with a human Face'
Warsaw Pact in Dnger
Fighting in Prague
Soviets regain control
Changes in Czechoslovakia
1964 - Replaced Khrushchev
not a reformer, wanted to go back to Stalinist days
His views became known as the Brezhnev Doctrine
Soviet Union must keep a tight hold on Eastern Europe
Communist Countries must have a one party state
Nothing should interfere with communist control over people's lives
Communist countries must obey the Warsaw Pact
Before WWII czsl had been democratic and a high standard of living
it was more economically advanced and industrial than most eastern European countries
Once Communism came the ecomomy dropped, and severe inflation prompted riots and Sovet criticizm
1968, new leader
loyal Communist and believed the Warsaw Pact
knew reform was needed
one party state, but people should have free speech
ordinary people should be involved in decision making
elected for 7 years
had control over the armed forces
power to invade in emergence situations - Article 48 -
chosen by president
in charge of day to day running of government, school, healthcare, taxes
must have support of at least 50% of reichstag to introduce new laws
introduced new laws
elected every 4 years
voting system by proportional representation
all men and women over 20 could vote
the electorate voted in
All Germans had equal rights to vote in elections
Too many parties, over 20. Made law passing almost impossible because someone was always unhappy
May have been too democratic, with no stability
Old German generals and upper-class wanted Germany to go back to "the good old days"
one party never gained majority, and coalitions could be easily undermined
Was the Weimar Constitution strong?
Freedom of speech and the press would allow Germany to develop
constitution recognized the equality of women which was progressive