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2.4 Motivation - Theories 2014
Transcript of 2.4 Motivation - Theories 2014
Indicators of poor staff motivation
Poor response rate
2.4 Motivation in theory
Do you think money motivates?
Maslow's Hierarchy as applied to Business
Limitations of Maslow's approach
Criticisms of Maslow's hierarchy include:
Not everyone has the same needs as are assumed by the hierarchy.
In practice it can be very difficult to identify the degree to which each need has been met and which level a worker is "on".
Money is necessary to satisfy physical needs, yet it might also play a role in satisfying the other levels of needs, such as status and esteem.
Self- actualization (
a sense of self-fulfillment reached by feeling enriched and developed by what one has learned and achieved
) is never permanently achieved - as some observers of the hierarchy have suggested. Jobs must continually offer challenges and opportunities for fulfillment, otherwise going down a level in the hierarchy will occur.
How important is pay for motivating workers?
Many studies have been undertaken to try and explain
what motivates workers
. There seems to be
some agreement that pay and benefits are important
in encouraging staff to work well, but these are not necessarily the most important factors.
Work enjoyment, work challenges
for work well done - these are the factors most frequently quoted by employees when asked what keeps them with their current employer.
Research carried out by the mobile phone company O2 found that
85% of employees
to their company
praised for their work
suggested that they would
in their jobs
thanked more often
. Just under 50% of workers had either never been thanked by their companies or could not remember the last time they were. Finally, managers should take note that
of workers would be willing to
if they got
for the work they did!
Points to think about:
Why do you think that pay and bonuses are not the most important factor for ALL workers?
Explain why "loyalty" and "working harder" are important to a business.
Why do you think "recognition" is important to many workers? Is it important to you?
Well-motivated workers will help an organization achieve its objectives as cost effectively as possible. Motivated workers will also try to reach their own personal goals by satisfying their own needs. Businesses need to have motivated workers.
- the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that stimulate people to take action that lead to achieving a goal.
- comes from within - satisfaction derived from successfully working on and completing a task.
- comes from outside - external rewards associated with working on a task (pay and benefits).
Unmotivated or demotivated staff will not perform effectively, offering only the minimum of what is expected. This will impact productivity levels and the competitiveness of the business. Signs will include:
Herzberg (motivation-hygiene theory)
Mayo (not in syllabus but super important).
Adams (equity theory)
F. W. Taylor - Scientific Management
Maslow and the Hierarchy of Needs
Herzberg and the "Two-Factor Theory:
Theory Comparison of Maslow and Herzberg
The starting point for the study of motivation is Fredrick Wilson Taylor. (1856-1915) He was an American mechanical engineer and had a massive influence on the world of work. His method was known as Scientific Management. A lot of businesses practices in the US, Europe, Japan and former communist countries are based on his work and writings.
Taylor's approach to management is it is managements task to decide exactly how every task should be completed. Then they need to design the tools needed to enable the worker to achieve the task as
This method is evident today in every McDonald's in the world - 100 years after it was developed!
Taylor believed that people work for
one reason only - $. He felt that people were only motivated by economic motives of self-interest. This resulted in his being known as "economic man." He was a trained engineer and was interested in output and
Taylor also introduced the concept of piece-rate system of incentive pay.
Henry Ford was largely influenced by Taylor. His Model T was the first mass produced motor car.
In every case where the Taylor method was implemented productivity greatly improved for several years. Eventually workers rebelled in being treated like machines.
Fortunately in Western countries developments in motivation theory pointed to new, more people friendly approaches.
Abraham Maslow was an American psychologist whose great contribution to motivation theory in 1954 was the "hierarchy of needs".
Maslow believed everyone had the same needs and as they satisfied them they moved to the next level.
- Challenging work that stretches the individual - this will give a sense of achievement
Esteem needs -
Recognition for work well done - status, advancement and responsibility will gain respect of others
ocial needs -
Working in teams or groups and ensuring good communication to make workers feel involved.
Safety needs -
a contract of employment and job security - a structured organization that gives clear lines of authority to reduce uncertainly. Ensuring health and safety conditions are met.
Physical needs -
income from employment high enough to meet essential needs
Results of Herzberg's Theory
a. Complete K&U Table on theories + Qs.
b. Read Virgin case study
In 1959, Frederick Herzberg, (1923 - 2000), a behavioural scientist proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-hygiene theory. According to Herzberg, there are some job factors that result in satisfaction while there are other job factors that prevent dissatisfaction.
Two factor theory - motivators and hygiene factors
His research stemmed from looking at factors affecting worker job
on accountants and engineers.
The results of his research revealed that:
resulted from five main factors - achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility and advancement - he called these
. These were
also resulted from five main factors - company policy and administration, supervision, salary, relationships with others and working conditions. He called these
Basically these were the factors that surround the job itself (
Pay and working conditions can be improved and these will help remove dissatisfaction about work; but they will not, on their own, provide conditions for motivation to exist.
Motivators need to be in place for workers to willingly do their best. This could be job enrichment which aims to use the full capabilities of workers by giving them the opportunity to do more challenging and fulfilling work.
Higher pay is a temporary motivator. If work is not interesting, rewarding or challenging then workers will not be satisfied or will not be motivated to offer their full potential whatever the pay level offered to them.
Mayo and the Human Relations Approach
Mayo conducted a series of experiments at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Co. in Chicago from 1927-32. These are known as the
He first tested the effect of lighting conditions upon productivity levels. The surprise result was than whatever was done to lighting production rose. This proved that there was more to motivation than money.
Subsequent experiments were done with 6 female assembly staff who were separated from their workmates. The woman were involved in the discussions and the results of the experiments. Every 12 weeks they tried a new working method such as:
individual vs group bonuses
different rest periods (breaks)
different work layout
Before every change they discussed the new method with the women.
Productivity increased with every change AND when they went back to their original work method - 48 hour - 6 days a week - no breaks - output when up to its highest level ever!!! and the women said they were less tired.
Conclusions of Mayo's work:
Changes in working conditions and financial reward have little or no effect on productivity.
When management consult with workers and take an interest in their work, then motivation is improved.
Working in teams and developing a team spirit can improve productivity.
When some control over their own working lives is given to workers, such as deciding when to take breaks there is a positive motivational effect.
Groups can establish their own targets or norms and these can be greatly influenced by the informal leaders of the group. to worker influences morale.
- workers are affected by the degree of interest shown in them by their managers.
Hawthorne's work became known as the Human Relations School of Management and businesses valued teamwork, communication and managerial involvement as important.
Short video reviewing Mayo's motivational theory:
Adams and Equity Theory
Employees are demotivated if they believe their inputs are greater than their outputs.
- effort, loyalty, commitment, skill
- financial rewards, recognition, security and sense of achievement
When this is in balance employees will respond with positive attitudes and high levels of motivation.
Questions to Answer:
What level in Maslow's hierarchy are the workers currently at?
Is fear a good motivator?
What level in Maslow's hierarchy is Terry Tate at?
How do we know this?
What evidence is there that this motivational strategy is working?
Is this sustainable in the long term?
Would it work at school!?
Terry has been drafted in to increase productivity at Felcher & Sons, and does so via American-Football-style tackles for anyone deemed to be working below Terry's exacting standards.
Motivation by Terrible Terry Tate
Review of Taylor, Herzberg, Maslow and Mayo's Theories
RSA Animate of Dan Pink's TED talk on Motivation
Daniel Pink - author of the book Drive
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
Pink is American and author of the 2009 book
Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
. He argues that older motivational models developed in the early 1900s, largely stemming from Taylor's influences, are flawed.
In the past it was believed that work was a series of uninteresting tasks and the best way to get people to work was to give them rewards and carefully monitor their performance. Productivity is increased by offering more rewards or increasing punishment for failure to perform
According to Pink, work today has changed - the tasks are more complex and challenging requiring creativity and problem-solving skills. The old system of reward and punishment is ineffective and may actually have negative results for both employees and for the business. Employees lose motivation and get less satisfaction from their work.
Pink argues that businesses have to tap into employee's intrinsic motivation. Pink proposes that businesses should adopt self-determination theory.
Businesses should create settings that allow:
- an environment that permits employees to shape their own lives - freedom in when they work (time) , how they do their jobs (technique) , who they work with (team) and what they do (task).
- opportunities that will allow employees to learn, innovate and create new things.
- a sense that their work betters their own lives and the world.
Daniel Pink - The puzzle of motivation. Extract of his TED talk.
Daniel Pink - speaking about his book
Growth Mindset and Fixed Mindset
- Carole Dweck
Link to Student Motivation
Consider how you feel about learning.
How does this link to motivation?
Commercial Break -
the Millionaire Mindset.
Think about it!
Two YouTube Clips on Frederic Herzberg "Jumping for Jelly Beans"
- A 1970s presentation to a group of British businessmen.
Motivation is when you want to do a good job rather than having to.
The more someone can do, the more they can be motivated to do.
and they will do their
. Make them
and they will do even
- Simon Sinek
over paychecks. Need meaningful work culture (link to 2.5 too).
“It is better to know how to learn than to know.”