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Applications in United States and World History
Transcript of Applications in United States and World History
Science and Technology as Engine of Economic Growth and Development
Geography and the Development/Diffusion of Human Society
Individuals/Institutions as Mechanisms of Change
This presentation will cover the following 4 themes in US & World History:
Applications in United States and World History - 2
Born February 6, 1911 - June 5, 2004
Western Governors University - GKT1
1. Geography and the Development/Diffusion of Human Societies
2. Individuals and Institutions as Mechanisms of Social/Governmental Change
3. Historical Systems of Power, Governance, and Authority
4.Science and Technology as the Economic Growth and Development
The Whiskey Still
Whiskey 's Birth
Whiskey is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from a fermented grain mash made up of barley, corn, rye, and/or wheat. In Latin, "Aqua Vital," and in Gaelic, "Uisce Beathe means "Water of Life".
It is believed that distillation was first used by the Babylonians in Mesopotamia, around 2000 BC, to create perfumes and aromatics. Greeks, medieval Arabs, and medieval Latins in the 12th century, also used the distillation process (from wine) to develop medicines to treat colic and smallpox. (wikipedia, retrieved 07/2014)
The first written record of whiskey distillation was in 1405, by Irish monks who found a pot still - (a copper alembic originally used for perfumes) in eastern Europe during the Crusades. They brought it back to Ireland and put it to better use - make medicinal spirits. This started in the monastery setting, but eventually passed to medical practitioners and surgeon barbers (Theobald, history.org)
The Pot Still
A still for whiskey is almost always made of copper or lined with copper plates. This is because, as the liquid comes in contact with the copper, sulfur-based compounds that can taint the whiskey, are neutralized.
The simplest still is the pot still. It is made up of a single heated chamber (where the mash is placed), a copper tube for the condensed alcohol to collect and move through), a cooling chamber to convert condensation back to liquid) and a container to catch the purified alcohol.
At this point, the whiskey is clear, and is stored in oak or cherry casks for aging 2-20+ years. This is what gives whiskey its amber coloring. The longer it ages, the more expensive it is to buy.
Column stills work like a series of single pot stills, made into long vertical tubes. The tube system can reach a higher and purer alcohol content. This is due to more exposure to the mash in the stripper column. The mash is on perforated plates instead of a solid mass, so more ferment is able escape into the condensation. (wikipedia, retrieved 07/2014
In the 16th century, King Henry VIII of England, eliminated monasteries, forcing monks into the public where they continued their art in homes and farms as a form of income. (wikipedia, retrieved 07/2014)
In Scotland in 1494, the King requested Friar John Cor to make 500 bottles worth of "Aqua vital" - which was not exactly for medicinal purposes only. This was the beginning of whiskey as a preferred beverage.
The distillation process was still new, and whiskey was consumed straight from the still. It was not allowed to age, and was therefore very strong and raw, not to mention potent.
Over time, whiskey has evolved into a much smoother drink. It has even become a form of art through the aging, and storing process and depending upon which grains and other ingredients are used.
(wikipedia, Retrieved 07/2014)
Whiskey has been a huge industry throughout history. It has been used as currency for trade, enjoyed by royalty, miners, cowboys, in homes and taverns.
It is available in almost every country in the world, and is produced in over 100.
What started as a treatment for illnesses, has become an economic, worldwide giant, selling millions of bottles annually.
all images are from google images
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/whiskey, Retrieved 07/2014
When Whiskey was the King of Drink
, Mary Miley Theobald, Retrieved 07/2014
http://www.google.com/images, Retrieved 07/2014
The Cold War
The Cold War
The cold war was an ongoing conflict on political and military levels between powers in the Western Bloc (US, NATO allies, and Japan) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (Soviet Union and it's allies in the Warsaw Pact) Although the US and Soviet Union were the 2 main superpowers.
It was called "cold" because there was no substantial fighting between two sides. However, there were regional wars in Korea, and Vietnam that the 2 sides backed.
The 2 superpowers never went head-to-head on the battlefield, instead each side armed themselves heavily in anticipation of a full-blown nuclear war.
Each side had nuclear weapons that stalemated an attack from the other (mutually assured destruction). If one launched a missile, the other side would also launch immediately. (shsu.edu, WarPact)
after the cold war was over,
12 more countries joined
(North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
(shsu.edu, war Pact, Retrieved 07/2014)
(nato.int/welcome, Retrieved 07/2014)
Political and military alliance - peaceful and democratic solutions, military interventions for crisis management when needed
Aside from stock piles of nuclear arsenals and normal military weapons and troops, the strive for dominance was conveyed through proxy wars (smaller countries fought on behalf of or were supported by one of the superpowers) -[Korean War, Vietnam, Cuban Missile Crisis] around the globe.
(wikipedia, retrieved 07/2014)
Psychological warfare, propaganda, espionage, technological advances -
and the Space Race
Other Tactics used...
The Space Race
USSR was first to send a satellite (Sputnik) into space, 4 months later, America answers with their own launch of Explorer 1 into Earth's orbit.
The next race - to put a man on the moon.
The US accomplished this on July 20, 1969
The End of the Cold War
Korean War - 1950 to 1953, Soviet-backed North Korea invaded pro-Western South Korea. First military action of Cold War.
Vietnam War - 1959 to 1975, Vietnam nationalists trying to unite country under communist rule, and US and South Vietnam, trying to prevent the spread of communism
(history.com, 1900s, vietnam)
Cuban Missile Crisis - October 1962, a thirteen day political and military standoff between US and USSR due to Soviet missiles being installed in Cuba - a mere 90 miles from US shores
(ushistory.org, retrieved 07/2014)
The fall of the Berlin Wall, and the "shredding of the Iron Curtain" marked the end of the Cold War.
Berlin Wall - divided Germany into 2 countries - East (communist) and West (non-communist)
The Iron Curtain -
When Mikhail Gorbachev took over as leader of Soviet Union, in 1985, he brought new ideas - allowing western ideas and goods (Glasnost) and allowed a limited free market hoping to spark the Soviet economy. The taste of freedom ended the Cold War.
Poland voted against communism in 1989, followed by Hungary and Czechoslovakia.
(ushistory.org, retrieved 07/2014)
phrase coined by Winston Churchill when referencing Soviet occupied and communist influenced countries in Eastern Europe
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/cold_war, retrieved 07/2014
http://www.nato.int/nato-welcome, retrieved 07/2014
http://www.shsu.edu/~his ncp/warPact.html, retrieved 07/2014
http://google.com/images, retrieved 07/2014
http://www.alphahistory.com/coldwar/coups-and-proxy-wars/, Retrieved 07/2014
http://www.youTube.com/, National Geographic, 09/11/2013, Space Race, the Untold Story, retrieved 08/2014
http://www.history.com/korean-war, retrieved 07/2014
http://www.history.com/cuban-missle-crisis, retrieved 07/2014
http://www.history1900s.about.com/od/vietnamwar, retrieved 07/2014
http://www.ushistory.org/us/59e.asp, retrieved 08/2014
Former actor turned politician, California governor (1967-1975) and the 40th president of the United States, serving from 1981 to 1989.
Nicknamed "The Great Communicator", Reagan became an admired two-term president. Through his renowned speeches, self-deprecating jokes and one-liners, he forced everyone to rethink politics in the 1980's.
http:// www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/ronald-reagan, retrieved 08/2014
http://www.google.com/images, retrieved 08/2014
http:// youTube.com.watch?v=epbVeAHIDg, Retrieved 08/2014
Accomplishments and Involvements
In his inaugural speech, in 1981, Ronald Reagan made the statement, "In this current crisis, government is not the answer to our problem; government IS our problem."
He reduced the size of the government and the hold of the federal government on the daily lives of Americans:
-he cut taxes in order to stimulate growth of the economy (called Reaganomics)
-he increased military spending, decreased some social programs and deregulated business
-by 1983, the economy began to rebound and enter a period of growth and prosperity that lasted through the rest of his presidency.
-appointed first women to the US Supreme Court, Sandra Day O'Connor
In 1979, the state of the American economy was deplorable.
Reagan restored American pride - helped restore the American idea that we could get this enterprise back on track.
(history.com, retrieved 08/2014)
-the Gas Shortage and Energy Crisis
- high interest rates
- the Farm Crisis
Played Major Role in Cold War
(survived assassination attempt in March 1981)
In the last years of the Cold War, Reagan was a key player.
- Reagan Doctrine - America aided anti-communist movements in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
- Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) - plan for space-based defense weapons to shoot down incoming missiles and protect America from nuclear attack from Soviets
- Ordered troops into Grenada, starting a chain reaction in the end of communist rule
-formed diplomatic relationship the Soviet reformer Mikhail Gorbachev - the 2 world leaders signed agreement to put an end to mid-range nuclear missiles
-spoke at Berlin Wall, asking Gorbachev to tear it down, 2 years later, it came down.
hhp://www.historynet.com/ronald-reagan, Retrieved 08/2014
all images from google images
(wikipedia, retrieved 07/2014)
Whiskey and the Economy
Whiskey stills have changed very little over the centuries - they are still made of copper and the shapes are still the same, differing only in size to accommodate the demand.
As whiskey became more popular, the demand for the drink increased. Thus, leading to increased production, larger and more distilleries, (Ireland, Scotland, Canada, England, US) and more employees. With more people working, more money circled back into the economy (and some of the wages purchase whiskey).
The United States bought Alaska from the Russian Empire in a treaty,in 1867 for $7.2 million.
Russia needed to repay loans from its emancipation reform of 1861. Along with a growing fear that the Alaskan Region would be seized by Great Britain if war broke out, and the small Russian population, military presence and lack of financial resources, they lost interest in said region. (history.state.gov, 08/2014)
The Tsar entered negotiations with William Seward of the US senate in March of 1867. An agreement was reached quickly, and the region of Alaska was sold to the United States for about $0.02 per acre. (history.state.gov, 08/2014)
The Alaska Purchase was one of the best deals in American history - adding 586,412 square miles to the US - without any war or battles.
Initially, American opinion was not positive or supportive of Seward, nicknaming the purchase "Seward's Folly" - feeling it was a huge waste of money and American resources. - However, most newspapers predicted the US would have great economic benefits from the purchase and a friendship with Russia was important.
With the land, came people and resources,including: minerals, gold, fish, oil and petroleum products, and animal products (ivory, furs).
Then in 1896, Alaska was finally recognized as a valuable addition to the American Territory, with the Klondike Gold Strike. Major gold deposits were found in the Yukon and Alaska became the gateway to Klondike Gold Fields.
Alaska Earns its Place
Seal fisheries provided substantial revenue for the US through the lease of privilege of taking seals from the territory -this was so profitable, it more than paid the purchase price of Alaska. Between 1870-1890, more than 100,000 skins/year were taken. This equaled $50,000 in rent annually per leasee, plus an additional $2.62 1/2 per skin - totaling about $12,000,000 by 1890.
The purchase ended Russia's presence in North America and ensured US access to the northern rim.
It became an important step in America's rise as a great power in the Asia-Pacific region.
For 30 years after its purchase, Alaska was all but ignored by the US. It was governed under military, naval, or Treasury rule.
Alaska officially became the 49th state of the United States of America on January 3, 1959.
http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/alaska-purchase, retrieved 08/2014
https://history.state.gov/milestones, Retrieved 08/2014
Shortly after WWII, it became clear that France and Great Britain would not recover and would not return as world powers. Non-communist China also would not become guardians of the Far East.
Throughout history, changes in the international systems of power have followed and depended on the event(s) preceding them. Acting as stepping stones for each other.
Leaving in the arena, 2 strong competitors, the US and the Soviet Union. These two superpowers had profound political and economic differences - Marxism vs. Capitalist Democracy. Thanks to the new reality of nuclear weapons, a new balance of power was forged. The world lived in fear of a nuclear holocaust. But neither side wanted to give the other reason to fire, fearing an immediate retaliation launch.
This struggle reflected the knowledge of both super powers that they were contenders in a fast-changing, ever-changing world. When the Cold War began losing intensity, the Soviet Union crumbled, and the US became the world's dominant economic and military power.
Balance of Power
The history of modern international relations, and of America's part in them, suggests a certain pattern. Americans, though often professing a distrust of European-style balance of power politics, have nevertheless sought precisely such a balance of power, or equilibrium, in world affairs. That preference survived the important shift from a world of very slow social change to a world of awesomely fast social change. It survived the end of the Cold War.
The end of Cold War created a necessity to create a new definition in international relations and forced the countries to re-structure themselves. In addition, the international organizations were also forced to enter a period of restructuring.
This process caused a great rise in the power of non-governmental organizations such as multi-national corporations, civil society organizations, and media.Therefore, these non-governmental organizations gained a little more independence from the states and their effects on the world affairs grew day by day.
http://www.americanforeignrelations.com, Balance-of-Power Encyclopedia of the New American Nation, Retrieved 08/2014