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Ancient Greece Civilization
Transcript of Ancient Greece Civilization
David Sherwood, Nicole Blackwood, Clare Mazius and Emma Gijsbers Social Classes Religion Job Specialization Upper Class Middle Class Civilization Formation Lower Class Slaves During the formation of the civilization in areas near and around Crete, Greeks settling by the sea typically worked as sailors and traders.
Those who invaded the areas, such as Mycenaeans, tended to also be traders. Sparta Don't have jobs
Own slaves to do all "chores" such as trading and to attend to attend to their property
Contribute to the society through war, government, literature, and philosophy
Hold the standard for taste and level of civilization
Encouraged the arts
A very small class yet significant After Sparta was established by Dorain invaders, it became a war community.
Lives and job specialization revolved around wars and conflict.
Citizenship was given to men of a certain descent. These men were trained to be soldiers.
Noncitizens had small businesses and jobs.
Boys were trained from a young age to become soldiers. This would be their job for their entire life.
Women in Sparta were able to own land. Changes in Athens Once democracy was established in Athens, job specialization reached out to the poor.
After the establishment of democracy, it was thought by many that your job should be given based on your skill rather than your birthright.
Land and the job of farming was important in Ancient Greece, and wealthy tended to obtain more land, as well as male farmers and landowners. Influences on Our Society Today The idea of democracy forming in Athens translates to our society today because we have relatively the same government that was established in Athens, where no one has too much power or is given power based on what family they are born into. Arts and Architecture Professional workers with job specialization in tasks like merchants and craftsmen
They also served as foot soldiers in wars (they were not wealthy enough to hold positions of strength)
Although not quite as fortunate as the upper class, the middle class was still blessed with quite a few freedoms The lower class, although large, had little influence on Greece itself, along with the middle class, because they did not have the right to vote
They were mostly laborers, similar to slaves, but payed Early Greek Styles Greek artists may have been copying the styles of Egypt at the beginning of developing the art form of ancient Greece, as the styles were posed and there was no energy in the sculptures or other art. The Greek Style of Artwork/Architecture The slaves were mostly prisoners of wars, victims of slave raids, and a lot of other things, but most importantly foreign
Few slaves were Greek, they were mostly what were considered barbarians because they were from somewhere else. Slaves had a minimal amount of rights and were basically at the whim of every citizen of Greece. Greek artists and architects believed that everything had a perfect form and that art should express the balance of the world.
Many works of art depicted ways of life in Ancient Greece and tell us more about the civilization.
An example of great Greek architecture is the Parthenon, a temple that was built to honor Athena. It is very detailed and well-structured.
Greek art is spirited and depicts happiness and joy.
Greeks created sculptures of gods and goddesses that showed them as beautiful human beings. Influence on Our Society Many artists today try to emulate the spirit found in the works of Ancient Greece.
A lot of architecture today has roots in Ancient Greek architecture. Greeks are polytheistic, meaning they believe in many gods. Their main gods are the three sons of Kronos: Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades. The three brothers have many children and grand children, making up a whole network of gods and goddesses. These gods were believed to be in human form but possess super human strength.The Greek Gods are a huge part of Greek culture. Because the Greeks believe the gods influence so much of their everyday lives, they do a lot of things dedicated to the gods and their beliefs in their everyday lives. For example, the festivals and rituals celebrating the gods are a very significant part of Greek culture. Also the religion is important in conflicts with other civilizations because there are a lot of disagreements on religion with other cultures which led to some important religious wars. Also, during war, religious or not, the gods were still believed to effect the Greeks. The Greek warriors prayed to the war god and goddess Ares and Athena, for example, during battle for good fortune. A large portion of Greek's arts were centered on their religion as well. The most famous architecture in Greece is religion based. Ancient Greece, being the huge civilization it was, has obviously influenced modern culture in so many ways, it is hard to name them all. One way is that they practiced democracy in their government which is on of the forms of government our nation is built on. So many of their forms of art and literature are still used today. The US Supreme Court building has roots in Ancient Greek architecture. Influence on Culture Today Organized Governments Monarchy The greek classes greatly influence our society today because we still have just about the same system, although the specifics are different, the general idea still follows a similar pattern. When governments first started to rise in Ancient Greece, the polis (City-state) was ruled by a King. Hereditary rulers had all the power. Landowners and military defenders guarded the king. This type of government is called a monarchy. Aristocracy Works Cited "Greece." Ancient Civilizations Reference Library. Ed. Judson Knight and Stacy A. McConnell. Vol. 2: Almanac Volume 2: China-Rome. Detroit: UXL, 2000. 307-372. Gale World History In Context. Web. 18 Sep. 2012.
Ellis, Elisabeth Gaynor., and Anthony Esler. World History. Boston, MA: Pearson, 2009. Print.
N.d. Photograph. Beazley. Web. <http://www.beazley.ox.ac.uk/images/homepage/reliefs/one/A079-1.jpg>.
N.d. Photograph. Met Museum. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Web. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_07.286.65.jpg>.
N.d. Photograph. Tqn.com. New York Times. Web. <http://0.tqn.com/d/architecture/1/0/b/q/SupremeCourtsb10068813x-001.jpg>.
N.d. Photograph. Web. <http://karenswhimsy.com/public-domain-images/spartan-warriors/images/spartan-warriors-2.jpg>. The ascendancy slowly began to transfer to the wealthy landowners and military defenders who they could afford bronze weapons and chariots. This type of government was called aristocracy. Oligarchy Later, when trade was bigger, wealthy merchants, farmers and artisans made themselves known and challenged the landholders for superiority. They soon had the power in some city-states. This type of government is called oligarchy. GREEK WRITING
-Greeks were the first people
to write their own alphabet
-It took them two times to
write it before they got it right
-They adopted the shapes of the
letters from the Phoenician script
-The alphabet has been used for the
past 2,750 years, and since 750 BC
-In different cities the alphabet was always
a little bit different
-All the letters in lower case are different
than ours but in upper case some of the
letters are the same In 549 B.C. a leader named Solon in Athens began to reform their government which was under aristocracy at the time. He got rid of debt slavery, opened higher positions to more citizens, and gave some foreigners citizenship. Solon Tyrants In 549 B.C. a leader named Solon in Athens began to reform their government which was under aristocracy at the time. He got rid of debt slavery, opened higher positions to more citizens, and gave some foreigners citizenship. Cleisthenes In 507 B.C. Cleisthenes started the Council of 500, whose members were chosen randomly and they had to be over 30 years of age. The council made laws considered by the Athenian Assembly and watched over the governments work. Cleisthenes formed the assembly into a legislature and they debated laws before deciding on their fate. Pericles After the Persian Wars, 460 B.C. to 429 B.C. Athens was under control of Pericles. He was a wise leader and because of him, the economy grew and government was more democratic. Pericles thought that ALL citizens should be involved in government. Juries (group of citizens that make the final decision in trial) and the process of ostracism (banning a person that was a threat to democracy) also formed under Pericles. This is the speaker's platform on Pnyx hill. The Athenian Assembly of all male citizens would meet here to discuss issues and vote on laws. Influence on Society Today Athens had a democracy where regular citizens had some influence on government. Today in America we have a democracy, and we also have a more extended legislative branch to our constitution. Athens had the same idea but they just had a legislature to debate laws. Athens also had juries to help make decisions in trial, in American government, we also have juries in our courts. Public Works Acropolis Citizens built great temples dedicated to their gods and goddesses on the Acropolis. Pisustratus When Pisistratus took power he created new building projects to give jobs to the poor. Competitions Greeks had athletic competitions which included the very first Olympic Games in 776 B.C. Building After the Persian Wars, Athenians built big defensive walls around their city. Pericles and Aspasia Pericles and Aspasia (an educated foreign-born woman) turned Athens into the cultural center of Greece by directing building projects. They directed public festivals, dramatic competitions, and building programs. This created jobs for artisans (craftspeople) and workers. Influence on Society Today Today in modern America, we still have public projects that are costly. Some of these projects are meant to give people jobs as well and we also still continue the tradition of the Olympic Games today. First Olympic Games Works Cited Ellis, Elisabeth Gaynor., and Anthony Esler. Prentice Hall World History. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.
Gale Group. "Greece, History of." World History in Context. Gale Group, 1998. Web. <http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/whic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=WHIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=true&source=&sortBy=&displayGroups=&action=e&catId=GALE|00000000MXF6&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE|CX2897200209>.
Gale Group. The speaker’s platform on the Pnyx, a hill where legislation was proposed to the Athenian assembly four times a month. Digital image. World History in Context. Gale Group, 2001. Web. <http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/whic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Images&limiter=AC+y&total=1&currPage=1&query=BS+pnyx+hill&prodId=WHIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&view=docDisplay&documentId=GALE|PC3035187099&mode=view>. Works Cited
Englert, Walter. "Greek Theater." Greek Theater. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://academic.reed.edu/humanities/110tech/theater.html>.
"Greek Mythology Zeus." Zeus. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://www.fanpop.com/spots/greek-mythology/images/687267/title/zeus-wallpaper>.
"Greek Social Classes." Portland State University Greek Civilization. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/portland%20state%20university%20greek%20civilization%20home%20page%20v2/docs/7/ryan.html>.
"Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History." Greek Gods and Religious Practices. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/grlg/hd_grlg.htm>.
"HistoryRocks Weblog." HistoryRocks Weblog. N.p., 21 Oct. 2007. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://historyrockscom.wordpress.com/2007/10/21/daily-lives-of-romans/>.
Howe, Jeffery. "Greek Architecture." Greek Architecture. N.p., 1997. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/greek_arch.html>.
"Social Class in the United States." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Sept. 2012. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_class_in_the_United_States>.
Yeun, Kelly, and Carrie Ngo. "Â ." Influence of Religion in Greece & Rome. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://www.markville.ss.yrdsb.edu.on.ca/history/16th/kellycarrie.html>.