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Hiring and Selection Training

Interviewing and Hiring Process Training for the South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation & Tourism.

Alex Wilcox

on 16 March 2018

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Transcript of Hiring and Selection Training

Why is this journey so important
Position Description (PD)
The position description serves as the blueprint for the hiring process.
Stop #2: Posting the Position
Applicant Screening Criteria
Who are your ideal candidates?
What qualifications do they have?

How can we quickly pick these out of the applicant pool?
Strategic Talent Assessment, Recruitment and Selection Tool (STARS Tool)
The STARS Tool helps us rank and choose the most qualified candidates to interview.

Rate applicants based on job related categories (ie. Customer Service).

Allows for easy input of applicant rating data and creates a simple way to compare and see how the candidates stack up against each other.

STARS Tool: How it works
The Hiring Process
& Interview Skills Training
Human Resource Management
Stop #1: Preparing to Hire
Job Analysis- Knowing the Job

It is important to start the hiring process off with a thorough job analysis, so you know what you are looking for!

What to expect on the road ahead
Finding and retaining the best talent is one of the most important things you do as a leader!
Hire hard so you can manage easy!
Don't settle!

Being short staffed can cause stress, but so can terminating a bad employee that doesn't fit the agency.
Hiring an employee is making an investment in SCPRT's future... and it's also a direct reflection on you!
Hiring mistakes are very costly!

Not only costs the agency money, but a bad hire can put a strain on a team and affect company morale.

"One subpar employee can throw an entire department into disarray. Team members end up investing their own time into training someone who has no future with the company."
Our Goal:
Participants should be able to play an active role in the agency hiring process and be able to conduct a lawful and effective employment interview.

The average cost of a bad hiring decision can equal 30% of the individual's first year potential earning.
- US Department of Labor and Statistics
The successful aren't immune, and they've had to learn from their mistakes. Zappos CEO, Tony Hsieh once estimated that his own bad hires have cost the company well over $100 million.
66% of employers said they experienced negative effects of bad hires in 2012. Of these employers, 37% said the bad hires negatively affected employee morale. Another 18% said the bad hire negatively impacted client relationships. And 10% said the bad hire caused a decrease in sales. -National Business Research Institute
Stop # 1:

to Hire
Stop # 2:

Posting the Position
Stop # 3:

Reviewing the
Stop # 4:

Stop # 5:

Make Your
Last Stop!

Welcome your New Employee
43% of respondents from the same NBRI study cited the need to fill the positions quickly as the main reason that bad hires are made.
It costs $7,000 to replace a salaried employee, $10,000 to replace a mid-level employee, and $40,000 to replace a senior executive. - From HR.com
As much as 80% of employee turnover is due to bad hiring decisions.
-From Harvard Business Review
36% of 1,400 executives surveyed claimed that the leading factor of a failed hire, aside from performance problems, is a poor skills match. The second leading factor at 30% was unclear performance objectives. - Robert Half
41% of companies polled by Vitamin T Staffing Firm estimated that a bad hire cost more than $25,000, and 1 in 4 said that it cost them over $50,000.
SayIt Communications calculated the ROI of a bad hire at -298%.
75% of the demand to hire new employees is simply to replace workers who have left the company.
10 Important Statistics on Bad Hiring Decisions
Performance Objectives:
- Comprehend the stages of the hiring process and the impact of good hiring on the agency’s mission and goals.

- Create and utilize supplemental questions in the applicant screening process.

- Write structured and lawful employment interview questions.
- Identify the benefits of conducting structured interviews with a diverse interview panel.

- Using the reference check guidelines, understand the importance of conducting a thorough reference check on a potential “new hire,” before making a job offer.

- Correctly recognize the required items that make up a recommendation packet.

• Successfully score and rank candidates based on application and interview scores via the STARS Tool.

• Write an applicant recommendation memo by listing the top three candidates, their strengths and weaknesses, according to the Freedom of Information Act guidelines.

• Acknowledge the importance of continued action and effort needed to retain and develop new hires via methods such as On-Boarding.

Review the Position Description (PD)
Verify that PD accurately fits the position’s Objective, Duties and Qualifications
Update the PD if necessary
Electronically send the PD with the Position Posting Request to HRM

Quick Reference:
 Essential Job Functions are the most critical duties/objectives for which the job was created.

 Marginal Job Functions are the non-critical and could be performed by another person and should not make up more than 5% of total functions.

Posting Request
So, what happens next?
What happens after you complete the PD and PPR?

The employment manager will take over the process and draft a Position Vacancy Announcement (PVA).
While HRM manages this step, the hiring manager's input is still needed.
The Position Vacancy Announcement
What is on the PVA?
Job Title- State Job Classification & Internal Title
Opening and Closing Dates
State Pay Band Salary Range***
Agency Hiring Salary (specified amount or range)
Job Type (FTE)
Job Location
Normal Work Schedule
Job Responsibilities/Duties
Minimum and Additional Responsibilities
Preferred Qualifications
Additional Info (actual job location, housing, etc.)
Position Number
PVA is typically posted for 7 calendar days. Job will close on the 7th day at 11:59 pm.
PVA will be emailed out to the agency prior to job going live.
This email can also be used to send PVA to recruitment contacts.***
Recruitment Ideas
Supplemental Questions
Supplemental Questions
Job specific questions

They allow us to gather more information about the candidate’s work experience and background as it relates to the knowledge, skills and abilities needed to achieve success in the vacant position.

Think ahead! What criteria will you be using to rank your candidates on the STARS Tool? This could be a great starting point for developing supplemental questions, and it could easily speed up your STARS Tool Scoring.

How They're Used:
To validate minimum requirements/experience
To gain further information
To drive home key requirements of the job
housing requirements, salary ranges, non-negotiable elements of the job
Supplemental Question Structure and Development
You will want to use
clear and concise
questions that gauge the candidate’s qualifications.
You want to develop easily
questions that will allow you to quickly determine whether or not the applicants meet minimum training and education qualifications for this position.

How many years of administrative experience do you have?

 None
 Less than 1 year
 1-5 years
 5 or more years

Question Format
• Multiple choice
• True/False
• Free response

• Yes/No
• Multiple Response/ Selection

You need to work with the HR Staff to come up with a set of supplemental questions that will lead you right to your all-star candidates. Take a look at the main duties of the Park Technician on the position description and come up with a set of supplemental questions to add to your vacancy announcement.

Break up into groups and create a list to discuss with the group. Try to develop 3-5 questions.

Activity: Supplemental Questions
(See pg. 17)
Stop #3: Reviewing the Applications
Once the posting has closed, HR will initially screen the applications that were received and make sure that the applicants have met the minimum training and education requirement as outlined in the State Human Resources Job Classification and the PVA.
HRM will place the remaining applicants on the
eligible list.

NEOGOV is a HR Software used to automate the hiring process for government entities.

All hiring managers will receive their login information after completing this training.

Next, HRM will screen based off any specific criteria provided by the hiring manager. (i.e. based on applicant responses to supplemental questions)

After screening is completed, the remaining candidates will be placed on the Referred List and can be viewed by the Hiring Manager on NEOGOV.
Now that the hiring manager has recieved the applicants on the referred list, it is time to rank the candidates.

SCPRT handles this process by using the Strategic Talent Assessment, Recruitment & Selection Tool (aka the STARS Tool).

For instructions on how to access the NEOGOV referred list, please reference the
Interview Skills & The Hiring Process
manual or refer to the SCPRT Intranet.
Reviewing applications is an important step. When reviewing applications, there are certain positive qualities you should look for, as well as things for which you should be aware.
Positive Qualities of an application:
What are some positives to look for in the applications you review?
Signs of achievement, results, stability, career direction
Specifics in job descriptions
Overall construction and appearance
Career goal is in line with the job being offered

What are some things you should be wary of?
Lengthy descriptions of education
Obvious gaps in background
Too much personal information
Unfavorable comments about previous employer (pay attention to the “Reason for Leaving” section on the job applications)
Inconsistency in Dates

Note: You are looking for someone who cares how they appear and who cares about the details. Once the person is hired, he/she is a direct reflection on you and your department.

The applications that communicate skills and experiences directly related to your opening should be interviewed.

Before entering candidates into the STARS Tool, create three stacks-
Yes - No - Maybe

To be fair in your interviewing process, you should go back and review some of the applications you put in your “
” and “
” stacks during your initial review.

Occasionally, an applicant may have some great skills that you did not see in your first review.

Once the applicants have been rated on the STARS Tool, select who will receive interviews based on their earned scores.
Look for a natural drop-off in the scores to determine who will be extended interview offers.
Send the completed STARS Tool to the Employment Manager for Approval.

Find the STARS Tool template on the SCPRT Intranet
Parks will have options to chose from as seen in the drop down boxes on their Stars Tool.
The Welcome Centers have these categories pre-selected.

For each category, rate each applicant according to their experience illustrated in their application.
Score from 0-5 (according to their years of experience in each category)

Assign a percentage weight to each category.

The form will automatically calculate the scores of each candidate.

After all candidates have been scored, press "Cntrl-A" to sort the candidates from highest to lowest score.
Select the highest scoring candidates for interviews.

Select the Scoring Categories
Look for a natural break or gap in the scores to determine how many candidates you interview.

Send your completed STARS Tool to the employment manager for approval before contacting candidates for interviews
- Put the most qualified applicants on the STARS Tool.
 Hiring managers do not have to place all of the applicants on the STARS Tool.
 Remember the Yes, No, & Maybe Stacks?
 Then go back and re-visit the maybe pile to see if any stand out at that time.
 There should be an adequate number of qualified applicants based on the total that applied.


Divide up into groups of 5-6 and review applicants A, B, and C.

1. You will first want to decide what scoring criteria you want to judge the candidates on. Once you have determined the scoring criteria pause and let’s discuss as a large group.

a. Why did you select these specific criteria?

2. Now that we all have the same scoring criteria, review each applicant and score them from 1-5. When each group has completed this task, we will go over the criteria and see how close our scoring is.

a. Why would the scores vary if everyone had the same candidates?

b. Did the same candidate get hired at each site?

c. What would make this process easier and how can we ensure fair results?

Activity: STARS Tool
What is Diversity?
Diversity describes the similarities and differences that people have.
Dimensions of diversity include but are not limited to:
- ethnicity -
- physical abilities/qualities -
- educational background -
geographic location
- income -
marital status
- military experience -
parental status
religious beliefs
- work experience -
job classification
Valuing diversity means creating a workplace that respects and includes differences, recognizes the unique contributions that individuals with many types of differences can make, and creates a work environment that maximizes the potential of all employees.
Why is DIVERSITY important?
- Helps the agency prevent discrimination and promote inclusiveness.
- Increased staff retention and productivity.

- It can enhance the organization's responsiveness to an increasingly diverse world of customers, improve relations with the surrounding community, increase the organization's ability to cope with change, and expand the creativity of the organization.

- Increased accessibility and accountability to all residents of the state.

- Good management of a diverse workforce can increase productivity and enhance the agency’s ability to maneuver in an increasingly complex and diverse environment.
Why is DIVERSITY important?
What is a Diverse Interview Panel?

- Minority staff members

- Staff members from various departments
- Example: Vacancy: Park Ranger
• Diverse Interview Team:
o Park Manager
o Welcome Center Employee
o Finance Employee

Why use Diverse Interview Panels?

- More subjective/less biased.
- Members have differing viewpoints.
- Teams should agree on top applicant.
- Provides opportunity for people from various areas within the agency to work together.

Hiring Managers MUST submit a completed Interview Team Form of proposed panel members (preferably with alternates) to HRM for approval PRIOR to contacting the team participants.
Once approved, the Interview Team should meet prior to the Interviews to discuss:
- Position Description
- Interview Questions
- Office specific information used in screening an employee
- Qualities of an ideal candidate
- Interview structure/logistics (who will start the questions, who will act as the main facilitator, etc.)

Create interview packets for your team that include:

- Interview Assessment Form (Interview Questions)
- Applications for all candidates
- Interview Schedule
- Position Vacancy Announcement (PVA)

Interview Structure
Unstructured vs. Structured
Traditional methods of employment interviewing typically use one-on-one interview formats and questions concerning an applicant’s work history, education and training, personal interests, and career goals.
- Concentrates on the essential duties required in a specific job
- Uses job-related, open-ended and situational questions
- Uses a detailed, predetermined rating scale
- Is more consistent than traditional interviewing
- Is documented for future reference - Freedom of Information Act

Preferred PRT Method

 Provides the employer with more useful, detailed information
 Reduces the possibility of unfair discrimination
 Tends to be more reliable and objective
 Actually more acceptable to applicants

Interview Questions & Assessment
Complete the Interview Assessment Form (on intranet)
Use the position description as a guide
Types of Questions
- Informational questions to confirm information and/or clarify any areas of uncertainty from the application
- Closed-ended questions are important; however, they do not encourage the applicant to talk freely or express ideas.

What was your last date of employment?

- Require the applicant to elaborate and express themselves.
- The applicant is given the chance to talk about their past situations, which will allow the interviewer to evaluate the applicant more clearly.

Do you enjoy being a supervisor? Why?

- Require the applicant to express their skills and temperament.
- These types of questions reveal how a person may react to certain situations while on the job.

Have you ever exceeded the expectations of a customer? Tell me about it.

- Allows the applicant to tell what steps they would follow in order to resolve a potential problem or dilemma.
- The applicant’s response will allow the interviewer to determine the type(s) of skills the applicant uses to solve problems or difficult situations.

A guest complained about the parks central reservation system. Tell me what you would do to resolve the situation.

- A method of testing the applicant’s skills and abilities. The applicant is provided with specific information and given a task or activity to complete during the interview process.
- The applicant will be asked to exhibit a certain skill that will be required of them in order to be successful in the position.

(See Manual)
At this point, the
Interview Team
, the
, and the
Interview Assessment
should be complete. You are now ready to begin the interview process!
Stop # 4: The Interviews
Schedule the Interviews:

- Call the applicants you wish to schedule for an interview.

: Only contact candidates after your STARS Tool has been approved by HRM.
- Please, do not send an email to schedule an interview.
However, a follow up confirmation email is acceptable after speaking with the candidate.
- Do not send the interview questions to the applicants in advance.

- What to bring to the interview (ie. Resume, portfolio, writing samples, references, etc.)
- Provide directions to the facility and specific location of the interview
- Provide parking instructions
- Name of person to ask for upon their arrival
- Approximate length of the interview and any other relevant information
- Provide them with your contact number in case of an emergency

- Do not ask Personal Questions
- If you’re not sure if the question is appropriate- don’t ask!
- If it’s not job related- don’t ask
- You cannot ask about:
Sexual orientation
Military service
Number of children
Marital status
Criminal record
Economic status

Plan ahead and be prepared.
Have your interview structure and strategy developed.
- Respect the candidates time
- Establish rapport
- Explain the interview process
- Explain why the position is vacant.

- Don’t promise job/salary before approved by HRM Office.
- Avoid “You” statements; creates false hope and expectations.
- Look at whole person/situation when making hiring recommendation.
The hiring decision is a prediction that a candidate will be successful in the position for which they are being hired.
- Strive for a ratio of 80% listening and 20% talking.
Helpful Tips:
No one looks or performs better than they do during the interview!

We have all gone through the interview process, and I’m sure we’ve all had some interviews that went great and some, that were well… not so great!

- List 1-2 great memories, traits or characteristics that you remember from an interview/interviews.

- Also, list 1-2 interview moments, traits or characteristics that just left you with a sour taste in your mouth about the company you were interviewing with.

Activity: The Best & Worst Interviews Ever!
Don't forget the Basics!

- Establish acceptable rapport
- Ask prepared questions
- Provide information about the job
- Answer any pertinent questions the applicant might have
- Allow the applicant to briefly discuss why he/she is the best candidate for the job
- Close the interview
- Review notes, score applicant responses, and prepare for the next interview

Legal Review:

Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)
Pregnancy Discrimination Act
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)


Focus on their talents, skills, and abilities that relate to the performance of the ESSENTIAL duties of the job.

Do not ask questions about their Disabilities, Religion, National Origin, Etc.

An Employer may ask all applicants this question: Can you perform the essential duties of the job, with or without accommodation?

Practice Consistency

Document, Document, Document!

Do the Right Thing

Apply Standards Equally

Choose Words Thoughtfully

Keep Accurate Objective Records (aka DOCUMENT!)

Apply the Golden Rule

Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990
is a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of the individual.
Qualified Individual with a Disability:
a person who meets legitimate skill, experience, education, or other requirements of an employment position that he/she holds or seeks, and who can perform the “
essential functions
” of the position with or without reasonable accommodation.

If the individual is qualified to perform
essential job
functions except for limitations caused by a disability, the employer must consider whether the individual could perform these functions with a
reasonable accommodation

- Modifications to the job application process that would allow the applicant to be considered for the job.

- Modifications to the work environment or the manner in which the job is performed that would enable the applicant to perform the essential functions of the job.

- Modifications that enable an employee with a disability to enjoy the same benefits and privileges as other
similarly situated employees.

Application procedures

• You reasonably believe the applicant would need an accommodation because of an obvious disability.

• The applicant reveals a hidden disability which leads you to believe accommodation will be necessary.

• The applicant voluntarily discloses to you the need for a specific accommodation.

How to Conduct a Lawful Employment Interview
- You
ask any questions regarding nationality, lineage, ancestry, decent or parentage of applicant, applicant’s parents, or spouse. You
, however ask whether an individual has permanent labor certification in this country.

- You
make any comments regarding race, color, age, or sex.

- You
ask questions regarding prior job experience, educational level, skills, certifications, or licensing which are relevant to the position vacancy.

- You
ask specifically whether an applicant is handicapped or has a disability. You
ask whether the applicant can perform the essential job functions, with or without reasonable accommodations, which are part of the job description; i.e., lifting, climbing, running, driving a commercial vehicle, etc.

- You
inquire into religious background or beliefs, but you
ask whether an applicant knows of any regularly scheduled work days he/she will have to miss because of religious observances. If the applicant answers in the affirmative, you
ask relevant questions in an effort to establish “reasonable accommodations”.

- You
inquire as to circumstances surrounding a conviction of a crime, but you
ask questions concerning an arrest.

- You
ask questions concerning relevant experience in the military, but you
inquire about general military service type of discharge.

- You
ask questions about garnishment records or credit history.

Interview Techniques:
Controlling the Interview
Testing for Truthfulness
Digging for Negatives
Don't Interrupt
Don't React
Pay Attention
Level of Language
Establish acceptable rapport
Ask prepared questions
Provide information about the job
Answer any pertinent questions the applicant might have
Close the interview
Review notes, score applicant responses, and prepare for the next interview
Allow the applicant to briefly discuss why he/she is the best candidate for the job (usually last question)

Stop #5: Make Your Hire
Panel Interviews Considerations:

- Schedule Carefully
- Members should be fully trained/briefed.
- Members should have a clear understanding of the expectations for the prospective hire.
- Consistency!
- Allow enough time between interviews to score applicant responses and to resolve significant score disparities among the panel members.

Interview Red Flags
& Things to Remember
Checking References
What To Ask?
Documentation- Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
Your Best Legal Defense
Recommendation Packet
- Recommendation Memo describing top 3 applicants
1. Hiring Manager
2. Hiring Manager's Supervisor
- Applications for the top 3 applicants
- Completed Interview Assessment Forms from each Interview Panel Member
- Personnel Transaction Form (PTF)
-The office director’s approval signature must be on the PTF form before routing to HRM.
- Signed SLED Check and Reference Check
- Completed and Finalized Interview Team Form

Forward the recommendation packet to HRM.
HRM will conduct the SLED Check
Make Your Hire!
The hiring manager will make a verbal offer after receiving approval from HRM.
If accepted, an offer letter will be sent to the candidate.
Regret letters will be sent to all other applicants once the candidate has accepted the position.
Welcome to PRT!

Welcome your new employee
Shift your focus to retention
Take advantage of agency On-boarding strategies.

The Journey is not over.
"I am convinced that nothing we do is more important than hiring and developing people. At the end of the day you bet on people, not on strategies."
Lawrence Bossidy


Alex Wilcox
HRM, Employment Manager

Avoid discrimination- Know the Law!
State Human Affairs Law Prohibits Employment Discrimination Based On:
Tips and Guidance When Interviewing Potential Employees:

caring for oneself - performing manual tasks - seeing - hearing - eating - sleeping - walking -standing - lifting - bending - speaking - breathing - learning - reading - concentrating - thinking, communicating - working
Major life activities:
Reasonable Accommodation:
The ADA Prohibits Discrimination in:
You can ask about accommodations if:
Implicit Bias?
Communicate important items to the candidate:
Conduct the Interviews:
Full transcript