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Copy of The Electromagnetic Spectrum

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Etosha Kiah

on 4 October 2013

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Transcript of Copy of The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Introduction
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Are you interested in purchasing an electromagnetic wave? If so...
Know that the electromagnetic spectrum is a grouping of all of the electromagnetic waves (arranged by frequency and length)
The electromagnetic spectrum NEVER changes (all the wave frequencies are the same, no matter your field)
Radiation can be dangerous if encountered on huge doses (like the atomic bombs in Japan)
Studies have recently been completed that may suggest radiation has a negative effect on pregnant people, Alzheimer's patients and can cause disruptions in the brain
Radiation can be very helpful:
Gamma rays can be used to scan airplane wings for imperfections
X-rays help doctors examine broken bones
The earth's atmosphere protects us from a lot of the UV radiation and infrared radiation coming from the sun
It does this by reflecting UV rays back into space and absorbing infrared rays to heat the atmosphere
Radio Waves
Have less than 10^-5 electron-volts of energy
Have a frequency of less than 3x10^9 hertz
Have a wavelength greater than 10 cm
Radio waves have the longest wavelength in the electromagnetic spectrum
This puts them at the very end of the electromagnetic spectrum
Radio waves also have the least energy and frequency of all types of electromagnetic radiation
Bring music to radios and carry cell phone and television signals
Broadcast technicians use radio waves to send their programs into people's televisions and radios
Astronomers use radio wave telescopes to examine radio waves emitted by astronomical objects
Microwaves
Microwaves have 10^-5-0.01 electron-volts of energy
They have a frequency of 3x10^9-3x10^12 hertz
Have a wavelength of 10-0.01 cm
Similar to radio waves but with a higher frequency and smaller wavelength
Located before radio waves, but after infrared waves
Microwaves are used in microwaves to heat food by creating an electric field in the oven and causing the molecules to vibrate and gain heat
Microwaves can also be used by certain satellites or long distance transmitting devices to transmit information
Microwaves can be used military personnel in the form of radar, which can help sense movement from far away
Cosmologists used background microwave radiation from space to support the Big Bang Theory
Infrared Rays
Infrared rays have 0.01-2 electron-volts of energy
These rays have a frequency of 3x10^12-4.3x10^14 hertz
They have a wavelength of 0.01-7x10^-5 cm
Infrared rays are between the visible spectrum and microwaves on the electromagnetic spectrum
Because of this, they are either hot, thermal rays or a spectrum of red and violet rays without heat
Infrared rays are used in remotes to control devices like televisions
These rays can also be used to heat up food in fast food restaurants
Meteorologists use infrared rays from satellites to get detailed pictures of clouds that warn them of future weather patterns
Geographers and ecologists can use infrared satellites to find areas of vegetation and development
Visible Light
Visible light has 2-3 electron-volts of energy
It has a frequency of 4.3x10^14-7.5x10^14 hertz
It has a wavelength of 7.5x10^-5-4x10^-5 cm
It is located around the center of the spectrum, in between infrared rays and ultraviolet rays due to its wavelength
Visible light is unique in that it is the only type of electromagnetic radiation that we can see
We see this radiation as the separate colors and each color has its own wavelength
When the color waves are combined, they form white light (black is also the absence of light)
Light wavelengths also change when temperature changes (shorter as the temperature increases)
Visible light affects our everyday lives as these rays bounce off of all objects and we perceive color from that
Visible light rays can also be detected by satellites
The satellites can manipulate this information to show places as they really are or emphasize certain areas
Astronomers use high contrast pictures of visible light rays reflecting off of planets to discover new information about its features
Geographers and meteorologists use remote sensing and visible light rays to study weather patterns and physical features of earth
Ultraviolet Rays
Has 3-10^3 electron-volts of energy
Has a frequency of 7.5x10^14-3x10^17 hertz
Has a wavelength of 4x10^-5-10^-7 cm
Scientists have categorized ultraviolet rays into three types of rays depending on wavelength (near, far and extreme with near being the closest to visible light and far being closest to x-rays)
Ultraviolet rays are located in between visible light rays and x-rays on the electromagnetic spectrum
Ultraviolet rays are emitted by hot and active astronomical objects like the sun
They are also used to sanitize medical equipment and in tanning beds
Astronomers are interested in ultraviolet rays because very hot objects in space emit ultraviolet rays
Using ultraviolet sensing instruments on satellite telescopes, astronomers can gather information like the temperature and make up of certain objects
Developers of sunscreen are also very interested in ultraviolet rays in that the ultraviolet rays the sun emits cause sunburns
X-Rays
Has 10^3-10^5 electron-volts of energy
Has a frequency of 3x10^17-3x10^19 hertz
Has a wavelength of 10^-7-10^-9 cm
X-rays have a smaller wavelength than ultraviolet rays and therefore come after them on the electromagnetic spectrum
X-rays also act more like particles than rays and are detected as little photons of x-ray light
These two factors make it so x-rays are discussed based on their energy
X-rays are most commonly seen in doctors' offices in the form of x-ray machines
The x-rays travel through your skin but are absorbed by your bones
When the x-rays are blocked, they form a shadow on x-ray paper that displays your bones
Certain bodies in space emit x-ray radiation
Astronomers collect this radiation and use that to tell how many photons of x-ray light are being emitted by that body and how fast they are moving
Gamma Rays
Has over 10^5 electron-volts of energy
Has a frequency over 3x10^19 hertz
Has a wavelength less than 10^-9 cm
Located at the opposite end of the electromagnetic spectrum as radio waves
Has the most energy and the smallest wavelength
Created in nuclear explosions and by atoms that are radioactive
Used by oncologists to target and kill cancerous cells
Gamma rays are also emitted by very hot bodies in space and these rays help physicists test out new theories
Gamma rays are emitted by various bodies in space and can be found in space and the highest parts of the atmosphere
Gamma rays can be used in treating certain diseases due to their ability to kill cells
Gamma rays are also emitted by nuclear explosions
Believed to cause cancer in large doses
People claim that these waves have negatively affected their health
A Radio
Radio Telescopes
Can cause cataracts (a cloudy-ness of the lenses) in the eyes
Could possibly affect parts of your brain if overly exposed
A Microwave
A Microwave Transmitter
Infrared rays mainly pose a threat due to their heat
Remotes use infrared rays!
Cat's emit infrared rays as heat
Exposing your eyes to a great deal of visible light can damage your retinas
The visible light spectrum made visible by a prism
Uranus shown in both its true color and color that has been digitally contrasted to show specific details about the planet
Ultraviolet rays are dangerous in that they can cause a lot of damage to your eyes if you do not protect them properly
Ultraviolet rays also cause sunburn
The International Ultraviolet Explorer
The sun, taken in extreme ultraviolet light
X-rays could possibly cause cell damage and cancer
However, the risk to patients who get a x-ray in very small
X-ray of a one year old girl
The Proportional Counter Array is an x-ray detecting instrument
Gamma rays are dangerous in that they can cause cell damage and different types of cancers
Gamma rays can also cause mutations
This usually happens in children due to their growing tissue
Gamma ray detecting instrument on the CGRO satellite
A picture of the moon taken with gamma rays
Citations
http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/light/spectrum.html
http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/index.html
http://www.darvill.clara.net/emag/emaggamma.htm
https://www.boundless.com/physics/electromagnetic-waves/the-electromagnetic-spectrum/microwaves/http://www.geo.mtu.edu/rs/back/spectrum/
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/ems3.html
http://www.phyast.pitt.edu/~blc/book/chapter5.html
http://missionscience.nasa.gov/ems/13_radiationbudget.html
http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/projects/vss/docs/communications/2-more-about-radio-waves.html
http://www.stmary.ws/highschool/physics/infrar_1.htm
http://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/Contexts/You-Me-and-UV/Science-Ideas-and-Concepts/Uses-for-UV
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