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Specifying Stance: Affect, Alignment and Investment in Interaction
Transcript of Specifying Stance: Affect, Alignment and Investment in Interaction
FOR Identity Linguistic Forms Variation, Discourse, Lexis Footing Appraisal Positioning attitude affect judgement appreciation engagement graduation Assessment Goodwin and Goodwin 1987 “assesments reveal not just neutral objects in the world, but an alignment taken up toward a pheonomena by a particular actor.” Epistemic
Stance Alignment how a speaker signals their relationship towards the talk they are producing an emotional stance in which the discourse figure is liked or disliked, or authority or solidarity are signaled Production Format Participation Framework Author
Eavesdropper Goffman 1981 Harre & van Langenhove 1999 “discursive process whereby people are located in conversations as observably and subjectively coherent participants in jointly produced storylines” Affect AXES Investment the polarity or quality of the stance, encompassing assessment Alignment is achieved when interactants are cooperative in the project of creating an interaction Martin & White 2007 Stivers 2008 in the analysis of stancetaking WHAT IS IT? Stance creates relationships of speaker to some discursive figure This discursive figure can be an interlocutor, a figure represented in the discourse, the animator, ideas represented in the discourse, or other texts. e.g. Ochs 1992 "Indexing Gender" masculinity
surfer, slacker cool solidarity DUDE Style Stance Alignment how a speaker aligns or not to an interlocutor (both epistemically and interactionally) how strongly invested in the talk the speaker is
But also 'enthusiasm'
"Dude" Properties in the analysis of stancetaking Dynamic Stances are constantly reaffirmed or shifted as a conversation unfolds Compositional As for style, no one linguistic feature (or non-linguistic look, gesture, etc. by itself creates a stance It's like a stew Interactive Speakers could be more accurately said to make a stance bid, which can be affirmed or not by other speakers Specifying Stance:
Affect, Alignment and Investment in Interaction Sentiment Positive and negative sentiment of authors, usually based on lexicon Wilson, Wiebe, and Hoffman 2009 Scott F. Kiesling
University of Pittsburgh (ING) (ING) is a well-studied variable with known patterns of production Old Stance? Meanings Much is known about how (ING) meaning works in English Eckert 2008 Relaxed, easygoing, unpretentious = low investment? Eberhardt Coding results DATA Monthly (-ish) meeting of 8 women who are adminstrators at the University of Pittsburgh
Each recorded on a separate track JUST investment Example 1 Example 2 affect merely precisely legally right only a moment ago absolutely equitable fair exactly at this moment good senses of just Example 3 alignment Investment Affect Alignment Hierarchy Solidarity Power Solidarity just
sayin' "I'm just sayin' " Year Trivializes investment Speaker indicates they are merely the animator (1) I know it's a long handout. It's so long because I put in all of the examples I could think of. I'm just saying.
(2) There's a lot of noise in New York. Not that it's a problem for me. I'm just saying. Scale of 1 to 5 for four components Significant effect: Speaker and hierarchy interaction Speaker effects Stance and indexical meaning interact http://bit.ly/UYNmyv