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BULGARIAN Language

Citation: http://www.everyculture.com/Bo-Co/Bulgaria.html http://www.ethnologue.com/language/bul http://www.expatfocus.com/expatriate-bulgaria-leisure-entertainment
by

Martha Duong

on 11 December 2013

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Transcript of BULGARIAN Language

Language & Culture
Pop. increased gradually most of 20th century
- 5,660,000 in Bulgaria
- 6,795,150 in all countries
decreased 700,000+ since 1988
- out-migration & falling birthrates during post-socialist period
68% pop. live in urban areas
Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Libya, Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine, United States


Coat of arms: independence
- fall of state socialism in 1989 the crown was replaced
- no meaning to stripes
peasant, merchant, craftsman, entrepreneur, teacher, nationalist icons of true Bulgarian spirit in literature and folklore
- honesty, industry, resourcefulness, cunning

I
cordial relations w/ neighboring states
strained relationship w/ Macedonia
- does not acknowledge distinct Macedonian culture
Most belong to Bulgarian Orthodox Church
- small numbers of Muslims, Protestants, Roman Catholics
- pagan beliefs & rituals
Orthodox Christianity enshrined in the constitution
Atheists result of government's attempts to discredit religion
1991 constitution est. parliamentary republic
free elections with universal adult suffrage
Politics dominated by Union of Democratic Forces
- anticommunist coalition & Bulgarian Socialist Party
post-socialist period: crime out of control, police ineffective
extensive health-care system based around community polyclinics
- legacy of state socialist period when universal healthcare was provided free of charge
herbal remedies
tobacco & alcohol extremely high
Agricultural labor divided by gender
patriarchal society
- women lag behind men in education
monogamous marriage by choice
- civil ceremonies are legally recognized
Zadruga: joint-family household disappeared by early 20th century
Contemporary households: 2-3 generations
Ethnic Bulgarians lean towards single-child families
free schooling compulsory between 7-16 yrs
- extensive system of higher education: state universities, technical institutes, teacher's colleges
Skiing (Dec-April)
Climbing/Hiking
Mountain biking
Location & Geography
Identification
Symbolism
Ethnic Relations & Beliefs
Demography
Government
"Bulgar": Turkic verb "to mix"
Ethnic Bulgarians trace ancestry to merging of Bulgars and Slavs
- 7th century C.E NE Bulgaria
several minorities: Turks, Gypsies, Armenians, Jews
Dominant national culture of the ethnic Bulgarians
- little sense of shared national culture among three main ethnic groups
- Turks Bulgarians
- Gypsies = Bulgarians

Linguistics
Food & Culture
local in-season products
- bread, dairy, soups, salads, stews, grilled meats, stuffed vegetables,
- banitsa: filled with cheese and eggs, pumpkin, rice, spinach, or leeks.
- boza (grain-based drink) & airan (yogurt-based)
alcohol: rakiya
can fruits & vegs, sauerkraut for winter
meat & dairy product consumption declined relative to less-expensive bread
Orthodox Christians observe Lenten fast before Easter
Muslims Ramadan
Christmas: meatless dishes, stuffed cabbage leaves, beans, lentils, boiled wheat, dried fruit, nuts
Christmas/New Year's: fortunes in form of coins, cornel cherry twigs, slips of paper inserted in banitsa, bread.
Easter: braided kozunak decorated with dyed eggs
Past-times
Roles
outsiders compared to more assimilated minorities: Jews & Armenians

rich cultural heritage
annual festivals w/ traditional music, folk dancing, costumes
live performances in restaurants/venues
Koprivshtitsa International Folk Festival every 5 yrs
Modern music: "vibrant, heady mixture of traditional Balkan folk music with Roma (gypsy), Turkish and Arab influences"
- frowned upon for "scantily-clad female singers and appeal to 'low class people'"
Boxing
Football
Tennis
South Slavic of Indo-European family
- Cyrillic script
- SVO typology
- 1 (National)
Related to Macedonian
Vocab borrowed from Russian, Greek, and Turkish
2 main dialects: eastern & western, local
minorities speak Turkish, Romany, Romanian. etc.
- Bulgarian medium of instruction in schools

Balkan Peninsula SE Europe
Borders:
- Black Sea east
- Romania & Danube River north
- Greece & Turkey south
- Macedonia and Serbia west
Landscape: 1/3 forested, 1/3 mountains, foothills, plains
Sofia mts. on crossroads of trade routes between the Aegean Sea & Danube and Turkey & central Europe
-easy access to Macedonian lands,


Caving
Water sports
Wrestling
Full transcript