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Transcript of Backward Design
Jen Snook, CATL
Determine Desired Results
Foundational knowledge and skills
What will the student need to know and be able to do in order to proceed with deeper understanding?
Pose essential questions to assist in making sense of otherwise discrete facts
"Meaning" connects the dots and is earned
Transfer of Learning
Require application not just recall
Application occurs in new situations
Learners apply their knowledge autonomously
an instructional framework to develop and deepen student understanding by focusing on big ideas and transfer of learning
Learning goals are framed in terms of important accomplishments reflective of understanding
Establish goals for acquisition of knowledge, skills, transfer of learning and assist students in making meaning
Students will, without significant scaffolding, comprehend and evaluate complex texts across a range of types and disciplines, and they can construct effective arguments and convey intricate or multifaceted information.
Students will apply lessons of the past (historical patterns) to current and future events and issues.
Students will apply mathematical knowledge, skill and reasoning to solve real-world problems.
Meaning-making: Essential Questions
How can stories from other places and times relate to our current lives?
In what ways do the arts reflect as well as shape culture?
How does where we live influence how we live?
Open-ended with no simple "right answer"
Is meant to be investigated, argued, looked at from different points of view
Raises other important questions
Constantly recurs; it can be asked and re-asked over time
Encourages active thinking about important ideas
The dilemmas of a representative democracy and separation of powers
need to know for understanding
Roles and limits of the 3 branches of government
important to know
Authors of "The Federalist"
nice to know
Determine Needed Evidence
What kinds of evidence will show you that students understand?
What you assess and how you assess it follows Stage 1
Develop Learning Plan
Activities and support should be derived from goals in Stage 1 and assessments in Stage 2
Check that students can apply learning to various issues, problems, situations and contexts
Establish real-world contexts, messiness, audiences and purposes
Reflect the 6 facets of understanding
Includes conventional exams, assignments, observations
Can overlap with gathered performance-based evidence
DETERMINE NEEDED EVIDENCE
Using performance tasks and other evidence, assess understanding
The 6 facets of understanding
Explanation - knowledge of why and how
Interpretation - meanings and patterns
Application - think like an expert
Perspective - see from another point of view
Empathy - embrace new ideas and experiences
Self-Knowledge - know what you know (and don't)
Design a product to explain a concept
Develop a plan for implementation
Describe how it might feel to...
Reflect on your own habits of mind
Informal checks for understanding
observations and dialogues
tests, quizzes, and work samples
Meet each of the types of goals through various assessment techniques
Give deliberate feedback
Be specific with grading criteria
Make rationale and intentions transparent
Continue to refer back to goals and assessment criteria in Stages 1 and 2
What will you do to check students' prior knowledge, skill levels and possible misconceptions?
How will you monitor student progress?
What are typical rough spots?
How will students get feedback they need ?
DEVELOP LEARNING PLAN
Make sure what you teach and how you teach it meet goals
Deliberate plan of study
Focus on understanding of big ideas
Focus on transfer of learning
Begin with the end in mind
Guided practice, independent practice, summative and formative assessment
Link everyday actions to key concepts
Do a trend analysis
Critique various versions of a work
Identify logical and implausible theories
Propose solutions to an ineffective activity
Should employ resources most appropriate to the goals (not simply work through a textbook)
Be responsive to differences in learners' readiness, interests and ways of
Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005).
Understanding by design (2nd ed.).
Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2011).
Understanding by design guide to creating high-quality units.
Alexandria, VA: ASCD.