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The European Reformation
Transcript of The European Reformation
An Introduction to the European Reformation
and the theology of Martin Luther (1483-1546)
The European Reformation
John Wycliffe (1320-1384)
John Huss (1369-1415)
What is the European Reformation?
1. Parallel Movements of Protest from Churchmen and Scholars against the Roman Church.
2. Protest in Print (Pamphlets, Books, Treatises)
3. Middle Class takes up the cause of the Reformers
4. Rise of the Proto-Nation States (Autonomy)
5. It is not a Schism (when part of Roman Church is in revolt against another [Western Papal Schism])
6. It is not a Heresy (Deviations in Belief without any reference to Power)
7. It is the fragmented yet cohesive development of new patterns of worship and belief, which brought with it new institutions for the whole of society.
Map of the European Reformation (ca. 1555)
Gutenberg Printing Press, 1450
The Rise of the European Middle Class
The Life of Martin Luther (1483-1546)
1501 - University of Erfurt (Law)
1505 - Augustinian Order
1511 - Professor of New Testament (Wittenberg)
1513 - Permanent Professor at Wittenberg
10/31/1517 - Luther's 95 Theses
10/1518 - Cajetan challenges Luther
1/1519 - Militz challenges Luther
6/1519 - Leipzig Disputation
6/1520 -Papal Condemnation of Luther
12/1520 - Burning of Luther's Books
1520 - Publication of three major Theological Works
4/1521 - Diet at Worms
1521-1522 - Safe haven at the Wartburg Castle
1522 - Publication of the German Bible
Bondage of Will
(Reply to Erasmus)
1525 - Wedded to Katharina von Bora
1520s - Publication of many Christian Hymns
1524-25 - German Peasant's War
1566 - Johannes Mathesius's
Luther as an Augustinian Monk
Public Square at the University of Wittenberg
The Rise of the Christian Humanists
Erasmus of Rotterdam,1467-1536
Erasmus of Rotterdam
Eminent Christian Humanist
Textual Editor of the Greek New Testament (Catholics Contest)
Greek/Latin Parallel (Five Editions, 1516 - 1535)
Differs from Jerome's Latin Bible (Vulgate)
"Do Penance for the kingdom of God is at hand." (Mt. 4:17)
- Jerome's Vulgate
"Be penitent for the kingdom of God is at hand."
Satire in the Praise of Folly (1509) - Mocks Superstition
Handbook of the Christian Soldier (1501) - Ethics over Ritual and Right Doctrine
On Free Will
Christian Humanists did not necessarily protests against the Roman Catholic Church because:
1. No Clear Alternative to the Sacramental System
2. Humanists were often Elitists, who did not desire big changes
3. Level of Ethical Piety that the Humanists demanded was far beyond the capabilities of the average person
Catholic Church offered little response to the Humanists
Ad Fontes (Return to the Fountain)
Cajetan, C.R. (1480-1547), C0-Founder of the Theatines [Congregation of the Clerks Regular of Divine Providence]
Wartburg Castle (Fredrick III protects Luther ,1521-1522)
Katharina von Bora
1559 Edition of Luther's German Bible
Luther's Hymn "From Heaven Above to Earth I come"
Luther's Table Talk (Collection of Sayings, published in 1566)
Quotes from Table Talk
"As when my little son John offends: if I should not whip him, but call him to the table unto me,
and give him sugar and plums, thereby, I should make him worse, yea should quite spoil him."
"Great thieves go Scott-free, as the Pope and his crew."
"Good works are the seals and proofs of faith; for even as a letter must have a seal to strengthen the same, even so faith must have good works."
Luther's 95 Theses and the Indulgence Campaign
Belief in Purgatory (Elaborated in Middle Ages)
Treasury of Merit (officially defined in 1343)
Remitted Punishment (Temporal Work)
Confession and Absolution prerequisite for Indulgence
Indulgence applicable to Dead (1470s onward)
Licet ad Initio
(Papal Order to raise funds for St. Peters)
Plenary Indulgence offered to the Public
Albrecht [archbishop of Mainz; bishop of Bradenburg], one of the seven electors of the Emperor, needed funds to repay Rome (1514).
Johann Tetzel (Dominican), salesman of Indulgences, coined the phrase, "As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs."
10/31/1517 - Luther sends his 95 Theses to Albrecht of Mainz
One Account (Philip Melancthon) suggests Luther nailed 95 Theses to the All Saints Church at Wittenberg
translated from Latin to German
6/15/1520 Pope Leo X's
Exsurge Domine (Arise Lord)
1521 - Emperor Charles V convokes Diet of Worms
All Saints Church
Saint Peter's Cathedral
Indulgence from Johann Tetzel
Diet of Worms , 1521
Albrecht of Mainz
Quote from Luther at the Diet of Worms (1521)
"Your Imperial Majesty and Your Lordships demand a simple answer. Here it is, plain and unvarnished. Unless I am convicted of error by the testimony of Scripture or (since I put no trust in the unsupported authority of Pope or councils, since it is plain that they have often erred and often contradicted themselves) by manifest reasoning, I stand convicted by the Scriptures to which I have appealed, and my conscience is taken captive by God's word, I cannot and will not recant anything, for to act against our conscience is neither safe for us, nor open to us."
The German Princes and Martin Luther
The German Peasant's War (1524-1525)
Peasants Revolt against German Princes
Princes attacked the notion of Property Rights
Roman Civil Law as Source of Centralized Power
German Aristocracy crushes the Peasant Uprising
Similarities with the Hussite Wars
Luther and the Peasant's War
Rhetoric of the Reformation: Autonomy and Dependence from the Church
Luther was used for the cause of the Peasant's War, but he also attacked the insurrection in his treatise:
Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of the Peasants
Luther's argues for the divine right of the princes to crush the Peasant's insurrection because God had given the princes rule (Romans 13:1-7) and the peasants were bringing about disorder, chaos, even robbing the monasteries.
Late Medieval Catholic Penitential Cycle
Protestant Reformer's Paradigm of Salvation