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Sculpture

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DJ Villanueva

on 4 April 2015

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Transcript of Sculpture

Lesson 4: Sculpture
What is Sculpture?
Statue of Liberty Group
comes from the Latin word "sculptura" means "to carve"
A three-dimensional piece of art that is made by molding or modelling clay; carving stone, marble, wood, ceramics, or brass; casting or wielding metal; or any other media.
Two Methods of Sculpture
Differences Between Sculpture and Statue
Additive
Subtractive
Assemblage
Molding clay
Carving ice
Melting wax
Casting metal
Chiseling wood
Sculpture
Statue
Purposes of Sculpture
• Sculpture is associated with religion.
CHRISTIANITY
Moses
Crucifix
Relief in an altar
HELLENISM
Zeus
Medusa's bust
Hercules killing Hydra
relief including Dionysus
KEMETISM
Anubis
The Great Sphinx
Hieroglyphs
Bastet
BUDDHISM
Bi/Jade
Statue of Buddha
Antique bronze hands
• Sculpture is integrated or linked in some way with other works of art in other mediums.
Norwood bridge, Winnipeg, Canada
The Voice
Greenbelt Chapel, Makati
Carved Wooden Flute
Confidence
Prudence
Justice
Truth
Thrift
Self-Denial
William Silver Frith, Architectural Sculpture on 13-15 Moorgate,1890-1893, stone
• Sculpture has been widely used as part of the total decorative scheme for a garden park.
David Harber, The Torus
A fountain in Sentosa, Singapore
Kinetic sculpture that looks
like snake
George Washington's equestrian statue
Vicente Manansala's bronze sculpture in FEU Freedom Park
• The durability of sculpture makes it an ideal medium for commemorative purposes.
Sarcophagus (pl. Sarcophagi)
Statue of Michael Jackson in London, UK
Angela Conner's "Rising Universe" to commemorate bi-centenary of the poet Shelley's birth
Anastacio Caedo, MacArthur Landing Memorial Park, Leyte, Philippines
Grave of Karl Marx in Highgate Cemetery, London, England
Elements of Sculpture
Types of Sculpture
Media of Sculpture
BRICK
Brad Spencer, To Build A Community
CLAY
Gregory Reade, Grand Finale
PLASTER
George Hart, Gonads of the Rich and Famous
LOAM
TORIMORRIS (deviant artist), Loam Dragon
Terracotta Army, 210–209 BCE, burried with Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China
Ivan Lovatt, Wolf and Peanut
Auguste Rodin, The Burghers of Calais
TERRACOTTA
WIRE
METAL
AND PORCELAIN
CERAMICS
FABRIC
PAPER
IVORY
Paulo Grangeon, Pandas
Ronan and Erwan Bouroullec, Clouds
Medallion with Return from a Spring Outing, Ming dynasty (1368–1644)
MARBLE
SAND
STONE
WAX
ICE AND
SNOW
PLASTIC
GLASS
FIBER
WOOD
RECYCLED
MATERIALS
Gian Bernini, Ecstacy of Saint Teresa
Pirates of the Carribean
Frédéric Bartholdi, Lion of Belfort
Rebecca Stevenson, Blossoming Head Sculpture
Globe made of plastic bottles
Hiromi Masuda, Con Brio I
Claire Zeisler, Private Affair I
Rey Contreras, Sculpture of Mother and Child
Slater Baron, Large Bear
F RM
Three-dimensional shapes
GEOMETRIC FORM
Gonads of the Rich and Famous, sphere
Regular forms, readily expressed in words and numbers.
ORGANIC FORM
Irregular and unpredictable shapes
can be used for expressive effect
Statue of Shiva
VOLUME
the amount of space a form occupies
MASS
Expression of solidity of the form and that it occupies space
TEXTURE
L
I
N
E
S
shows the
fundamental
direction of
the sculpture
element
that creates forms
Open Volume
Closed Volume
C
O
L
O
R
Either colorless or colorful, this element makes the sculpture more attractive
BALANCE
symmetrically,
equally balanced on each side
asymmetrically,
or not balanced at all
Repetition
Repetition
Repetition
created when objects, forms, space, light, direction, line, etc. are repeated
EMPHASIS
the focal area in which the eye is drawn to
part of the sculpture with the greatest visual appeal
C
S
A
L
E
The size of the sculpture
Relief (or Relievo)
- from the Latin verb levo, to raise.
- To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane.
- According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Heilbrunn Time line of Art History, Relief sculpture is "sculpture that projects in vary degrees from a two-dimensional background."
- Relief sculpture is among the oldest forms of sculpted art.
Bas Relief (Low Relief)
- has a very low degree of relief from the base.
- is a type of sculpture that has less depth to the faces and figures than they actually have, when measured proportionately (to scale). This technique retains the natural contours of the figures, and allows the work to be viewed from many angles without distortion of the figures themselves.
High Relief
- is where in general more than half the mass of the sculpted figure projects from the background, indeed the most prominent elements of the composition, especially heads and limbs, are often completely undercut, like detaching them from the field.
- The parts of the subject that are seen are normally depicted at their full depth, unlike low relief where the elements seen are "squashed" flatter.
- High-relief thus uses essentially the same style and techniques as free-standing sculpture, but has still a background plane.
Sunken Relief
- It had been used earlier, but mainly for large reliefs on external walls, and is common to Ancient Egypt sculptures like hieroglyphs and cartouches.
- The image is made by cutting the relief sculpture itself into a flat surface. In most cases the figure itself is in low relief, but set within a sunken area shaped round the image, so that the relief never rises beyond the original flat surface.
Counter Relief (or Intaglio)
- An image is fully modeled in a "negative" manner. The image goes into the surface, so that when impressed on wax or clay it gives an impression in normal relief.
Small-scale Relief
- been carved in various materials, notably ivory, wood, and wax. Reliefs are often found in decorative arts such as ceramics and metalwork; these are less often described as "reliefs" than as "in relief".
Sculpture-in-the-round
- free-standing sculpture
- likely represents the form of sculpture most recognizable to modern people.
- is any work of sculpture which can be viewed from any angle around the pedestal.
Michelangelo, David, different angles
Kinetic Sculpture
- is free-standing sculpture that moves, either by mechanical power or under the power of wind or water.
- Fountains are a form of kinetic sculpture, although in that special case the sculpture is not powered by the water but lives within the shapes and forms of the water as it arcs over and through the air.
Assemblage Sculpture
- Modern form of sculpture which the materials are pieced together from scraps or scavenged items that have little or no relationship to one another.
- These pieced-together bits of castoff debris are arranged in an aesthetically pleasing shape to the artist and then presented to its audiences to provoke thought and reaction.
Development of Sculpture
1. Prehistoric Period
2. Egyptian Period
3. American Period
4. Indian Sculpture
5. Greek Period
6. Buddhist Sculpture
8. Gothic Period
7. Romanesque Period
9. Renaissance Period
11. Neoclassicism
10. Baroque Period
12. African Wood Carving
13. Tribal Art and Cubism
In the recesses of caves, people begin to decorate the rock face with an important theme in their daily lives, the bison and reindeer which are their prey as Ice Age hunters. And sculptors carve portable images of another predominant interest of mankind - the swelling curves of the female form, emphasizing the fertility on which the survival of the tribe depends.
Perhaps the most famous of early sculptures is the so-called Venus of Willendorf. Found at Willendorf in Austria, and dating from more than 25,000 years ago, she is only about four inches high. More than 100 fertility figures of this kind have been found in an area reaching from France to southern Russia.
Venus of Willindorf, 25,000 years old, Willendorf, Austria
The first civilization to establish a recognizable artistic style is Egypt. This style follows a strange but remarkably consistent convention, by which the feet, legs and head of each human figure are shown in profile but the torso, shoulders, arms and eye are depicted as if from the front.
Some time after 3000 BC, it becomes the practice in Egypt for seated statues of royal people and distinguished officials to be placed in their tombs.
The most colossal sculpture of the ancient world is the Egyptian sphinx. The great lion with a human face is carved from the center of a limestone quarry, after the tons of stone which once surrounded it have been hacked and dragged away to form the greatest of the three nearby pyramids, that of the pharaoh Khufu.
The Great Sphinx of Giza, c. 2650 BCE, Giza, Egypt
The sculpture of the American continent makes a powerful start. The style is primitive but the scale is monumental.
The most characteristic sculptures of San Lorenzo and La Venta are astonishing creations. They are massive colossal stone heads, more than two meters in height, of square-jawed and fat-lipped warriors, usually wearing helmets with ear flaps.
Olmec Colossal Heads, before 900 BC, Veracruz, Mexico, basalt boulders
The first known sculpture in the Indian subcontinent is from the Indus Valley civilization, found in sites at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa in modern-day Pakistan. These include the famous small bronze female dancer. However such figures in bronze and stone are rare and greatly outnumbered by pottery figurines and stone seals, often of animals or deities very finely depicted.
Dancing Girl Statuette, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, bronze, 4.5 in.
Greece in the classical period makes the innovations which underlie the mainstream western tradition in art. This is true of both painting and sculpture.
The essential characteristic of classical Greek art is a heroic realism. Painters and sculptors attempt to reveal the human body, in movement or repose, exactly as it appears to the eye. The emphasis will be on people of unusual beauty, or moments of high and noble drama. But the technical ability to capture the familiar appearance of things is an innovation which can later be adapted to any subject.
Charioteer of Delphi, also known as Heniokhos, Sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi, bronze, life-sized
During the 6th century BC, sculptures became more explicit, representing episodes of the Buddha’s life and teachings. These took the form of votive tablets or friezes, usually in relation to the decoration of stupas. Although India had a long sculptural tradition and a mastery of rich iconography, the Buddha was never represented in human form, but only through Buddhist symbolism. This period may have been aniconic.
Votive Tablet, Pagan, Myanmar, terracotta
Romanesque, a word not coined until the 18th century, is first used to describe the architecture of Western Europe from about the 9th to 12th century. It has become applied by extension to other arts, in particular sculpture. But the term remains most appropriate to architecture, where the round arches of Romanesque can easily be seen as what the name implies - a continuation of the Roman tradition. The round arch is characteristic of much in Roman building - whether in their great aqueducts and bridges, in emperors' triumphal arches, or astride classical columns.
Pentecost, tympanum from Sainte-Madeleine, Vezeley, France, 1120-1132, stone
Gothic, descriptive now of some of the most sublime creations of the European imagination, begins as a term of abuse. It is used by theorists in the Renaissance to blame the Goths for 1000 years of non-classical architecture - from 410 (when Rome is sacked by the Visigoths) to 1419 (when Brunelleschi uses classical motifs on the façade of a foundling hospital in Florence). The term is applied also to sculpture of the same period, much of it found on buildings.
The Gothic style, though also used in secular buildings, is most associated with the great cathedrals of Europe.
As with architecture, a sense of lightness and height distinguishes Gothic sculpture from the preceding Romanesque style. Romanesque figures tend to be squat, chunky and angular. Gothic sculptures are tall and thin, reflecting the vertical lines of the new style.
Gothic Style of Architecture
An important element of the Renaissance is the rediscovery of the realistic free-standing human figure as sculpted in Greece and Rome. Also, the classical theme of the Renaissance is more specifically Italian.
Bartolommeo Bandinelli, Hercules and Cacus, 1525–1534, Florence, Italy, marble
Europe in the 17th century, and in particular Roman Catholic Europe, revels in a new artistic style embracing architecture as well as painting and sculpture. In many contexts, such as church interiors, the baroque combines all three arts in an unprecedented way to create a sense of emotional exuberance. The term barocco is first used to suggest disapproval. It is thought to derive from a Portuguese word for a misshapen pearl. Certainly unbalance and excess are the qualities which baroque artists indulge in and turn to advantage.
Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Bust of Louis XIV, 1665, Versailles Palace, Paris, marble, 80 cm (31 in)
Over the next century Greek themes increasingly pervade the decorative arts. Greek porticos and colonnades grace public buildings. Greek refinement becomes the ideal for neoclassical sculptors and painters.
Rome is the center of neoclassical sculpture.
The Parthenon, Acropolis of Athens, Greece
In Africa, south of the Sahara, wood is the natural material for carving. In the 20th century sculpture in wood is still very much a living tradition. Examples from the 19th century have been preserved in reasonable number, largely by the efforts of collectors. But earlier work has crumbled irretrievably, eaten by ants or rotted by damp.
Nok, 6th c. BC–6th c. CE, terracotta
Whatever the reason for the range of tribal art, the result is an unrivalled display of the power of the imagination. The basic subject, as in western sculpture, is the human body.
Frank Cota, Cubist sculpture
INTERNATIONAL RONOWNED SCULPTORS
1. Donatello
2. Michelangelo
3. Gian Bernini
4. Auguste Rodin
5. Frédéric Bartholdi
1. Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi a.k.a. Donatello
1386 - 1466
greatest sculptor of the early Renaissance
He completed mastery of bronze, stone, wood, and terra cotta, and nothing escaped his extraordinary capabilities: relief sculpture, nudes, equestrian statues, groups of figures, and single figures seated or standing.
Above all, Donatello seemed to be able to bring sculpture to life by his ability to tell a story, combine realism and powerful emotion, and create the impression that his figures were more than mere objects of beauty for passive contemplation, but creations filled with energy and thought, ready to spring into action.

Donatello, David, 1430, Bargello, France, bronze
Donatello, Equestrian Statue of Gattamelata, 1453, Padua, Italy, bronze, Dimensions:
340 x 390 cm
Donatello, Zuccone, 1423-1425, Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Florence, Italy, marble
Donatello, Penitent Magdalene, 1453-1455, Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Florence, Italy, wood, Height: 188 cm
2. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni a.k.a. Michelangelo
1475 - 1564
A sculptor first, painter and architect second, Michelangelo was a workaholic - a melancholic, temperamental, and lonely figure. He had a profound belief in the human form (especially the male nude) as the ultimate expression of human spirituality, sensibility, and beauty. In fact, Michelangelo's early work shows the human being as the measure of all things: idealized, muscular, confident, and quasi-divine. Endlessly inventive, he never repeated a pose, although being a true Renaissance man, he was proud to borrow from Greek and Roman precedents.
Michelangelo, David, 1501-1504, Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, marble
Michelangelo, Pietà, 1498-1499, St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, marble, Dimensions: 174 cm × 195 cm (68.5 in × 76.8 in)
Michelangelo, Moses, 1513-1515, San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, marble, Height: 235 cm (92.5 in)
3. Gian Lorenzo Bernini
1598 - 1680
Bernini set sculpture free from its previous occupation with earthly gravity and intellectual emotion, allowing it to discover a new freedom that permitted it to move, soar, and have a visionary and theatrical quality. He was a true visionary technically, able to carve marble so as to make it seems to move or have the delicacy of the finest lace. He was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture.

Bernini, David, 1623-1624, Galleria Borghese, Rome, marble, Height: 170 cm (67 in)
Bernini, Apollo and Daphne, 1622-1625, Galleria Borghese, Rome, marble, Height: 243 cm (96 in)
Bernini, Ecstacy of Saint Teresa, 1647-1652, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, marble, Height: life-size
Bernini, Equestrian Statue of King Louis XIV, 1665-1684, Palace of Versailles, Versailles
4. François-Auguste-René Rodin a.k.a. Auguste Rodin
1840 - 1917
Rodin is the glorious, triumphant finale to the sculptural tradition that starts with Donatello. He is rightly spoken of in the same breath as Michelangelo, although they're very different: Michelangelo carved into marble whereas Rodin molded with clay. A shy workaholic, untidy, and physically enormous, Rodin emerged from impoverished beginnings. He was also well known for loving the fluidity of clay and plaster, and was able to retain this quality even when his work was cast in bronze, thereby magically releasing in his figures an extraordinary range of human feelings and a sense of the unknown forces of nature.
Rodin, The Thinker (Le Penseur), 1902, Rodin Museum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, bronze, 186 cm (73 in)
Rodin, The Gates of Hell, The Kunsthaus Zürich, Zurich
The Gates of Hell comprised 186 figures in its final form. Many of Rodin's best-known sculptures started as designs of figures for this composition, such as The Thinker, The Three Shades, and The Kiss, and were only later presented as separate and independent works. Other well-known works derived from The Gates are Ugolino, Fugit Amor, The Falling Man, and The Prodigal Son.
Rodin, The Walking Man, 1877-1878, bronze
Rodin, The Kiss, 1882, Paris, marble, Dimensions: 181.5 cm × 112.5 cm × 117 cm (71.5 in × 44.3 in × 46 in)
Rodin, The Age of Bronze, 1876, Alte Natinalgalerie, Berlin, Germany, bronze, Height: life-size
Rodin, The Burghers of Calais, 1884-1889, Calais, France, bronze, Dimensions: 201.6 cm × 205.4 cm × 195.9 cm (79 3⁄8 in × 80 7⁄8 in × 77 1⁄8 in)
5. Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi
1834 - 1904
Bartholdi served in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 as a squadron leader of the National Guard, and as a liaison officer to General Giuseppe Garibaldi, representing the French government and the Army of the Vosges. In 1875, he joined the Freemasons Lodge Alsace-Lorraine in Paris. In 1871, he made his first trip to the United States, to select the site for the Statue of Liberty, the creation of which would occupy him after 1875.
Bartholdi was one of the French commissioners in 1876 to the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. There he exhibited bronze statues of "The Young Vine-Grower", "Génie Funèbre", "Peace" and "Genius in the Grasp of Misery", for which he received a bronze medal.
Bartholdi, Liberty Enlightening the World a.k.a. “Statue of Liberty”, 1886, Liberty Island, New York City, copper, Height: (Base to torch) 151 feet 1 inch (46 meters)
It was a gift to the United States from the people of France. The statue is of a robed female figure representing Libertas, the Roman goddess, who bears a torch and a tabula ansata (a tablet evoking the law) upon which is inscribed the date of the American Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. A broken chain lies at her feet. The statue is an icon of freedom and of the United States: a welcoming signal to immigrants arriving from abroad.
5b. Bartholdi, Lion of Belfort, 1880, Belfort, France, red sandstone, Dimensions: 22 × 11 meters
FILIPINO RENOWNED SCULPTORS
6. Rey Paz Contreras
7. Guillermo E. Tolentino
8. Anastacio Caedo
6. Rey Paz Contreras
1950
He is a prominent Filipino sculptor working with urban refuse and ecological materials as artistic media. He is encouraged by the native Filipino culture and creates visual forms of contemporary images that discover a distinct Filipino aesthetics. Contreras' pioneered the exercise of travieza or hardwood railroad sleepers through the late ‘70s.
He was an activist during the oppressive Marcos’ government. He used his art as a form of agency. Using local and available resources, he critics the local artists' reliance on foreign art, not only in media but also in idea and outline. Refusal of the western cultural supremacy as type of anti-colonial, anti-fascist reaction and was part of the broader Social Realism art association in the Philippines.
Contreras, Sculpture of Mother and Child, molave hardwood
Contreras, The Tree, Bonifacio Global City, Taguig, Philippines, stainless steel
7. Guillermo Estrella Tolentino
*1890 – 1976
*He is a Filipino sculptor who was named National Artist for the Visual Arts (Sculpture) in 1973. He was considered as the “Father of Philippine Arts, because of his great works like the famous “Bonifacio Monument” symbolizing Filipinos’ cry for freedom, located in the intersection of EDSA and Rizal Avenue; and University of the Philippines' most recognizable emblem, the UP Oblation signifying academic freedom.
Tolentino, Bonifacio Monument, 1933, Caloocan City, Philippines, 28.5 metres (94 ft)
Tolentino, Oblation, 1935, University of
the Philippines, bronze
8. Anastacio Tanchauco Caedo
1907 – 1990
His style of sculpture was classical realist in the tradition of his mentor, Guillermo Tolentino.
His best known works include the MacArthur Landing site in Palo Red Beach, Leyte; the Benigno Aquino Monument which was originally at the corner of Ayala Avenue and Paseo de Roxas in Makati; the Bonifacio Monument in Pugad Lawin, Balintawak; and numerous statues of Jose Rizal, most notably the ones displayed in Philippine embassies throughout the world. He produced numerous commissioned representational sculptures mainly monuments of national heroes and successful Filipino politicians, businessmen, and educators.
Caedo is also notable for having refused the honor of being awarded a National Artist of the Philippines - in 1983, 1984, and 1986.

Caedo, MacArthur’s Landing Memorial Park, Palo, Leyte, Philippines, 6.78 hectares (16.8 acres)
Caedo, Benigno Aquino Monument, 1986, Luisita, Tarlac
• It is a sculpture of a person or an animal. The size of a statue has to be life-sized or huge.
• It must be in whole-body form.
• It is only meant for celebrations, worship, commemoration, and display.
• It cannot have a modern conception in its making.
• It cannot be exhibited, because it is located on a fixed position and location.
• Statues are said to be a subset of sculpture.
• It can be of any dimension.
• It can be modern in conception.
• It can be a bust, relief, utensil, display, or any other forms.
• It can be exhibited in group shows or one-man shows of the creative artists.
HELLENISM
9. Solomon Saprid
10. Napoleon Abueva
9. Solomon Saprid
*1917- 2003
*He was a modern Philippine sculptor who became known for his works in bronze which he created by welding scraps of metal, producing a characteristic jagged effect. His Tikbalang Series, which he began in 1971, is particularly acclaimed. Saprid once wrote that it is a rare privilege to be an artist. Such gift can only come from God perhaps to make this world a more colorful and pleasant place to live in. Art is almost life itself and you need not be an artist to know that it is part of the daily activities-both social and domestic. Art is a visual statement of one’s feelings, a mirrored reaction to personal and national issues and a way of sharing an artistic creation with others who appreciate it.
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