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Leadership &Management Theories

leadership, motivation, management theories; Mayo, Malsow, Herzberg, Mcgegor, Taylor. Plagiarism, refworks and harvard referencing

Clare T

on 16 October 2014

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Transcript of Leadership &Management Theories

Leadership & Management Theories
By Aneta Winiarczyk, Clare Toulson, Muctarr Jalloh and Regan Joyce
In order to write about theorists and their work we must first research, one useful way to do this is but using refwork (seen next transition)

It is important that you reference your work so that you are
not seen plagiarising another's work. (see the second
transition and onwards from this)
So what is Plagiarism?
(a) Harvard referencing
(b) How to use RefWorks.
(c) What plagiarism is, and why it is taken so seriously.

Frederick Taylor-1911
Where did we get this from?
Elton Mayo-1933
Frederick Herzberg-1959
Douglas McGregor-1960
Abraham Maslow-1954
Named the father of scientific management, Putting forward the notion that workers were mainly
money motivated,
this meant that they need close supervision and control by managers. Workers should be
paid according to the number of items they produce
in a set
period of time
- piece-rate pay.
As a result workers would be encouraged to work hard and maximise productivity.

Mayo disagreed with Taylor and thought that a better form of motivation as opposed to money, would be to have social needs met. He conducted experiments at the Hawthorne factory in Chicago and studied productivity levels of changing factors such as lighting and working conditions. From this Mayo concluded in practice businesses should re-organise production to
encourage greater use of team working
and introduce personnel departments to encourage greater manager involvement in looking after employees’ interests.
Maslow put forward a theory that there are five levels of human needs employees need to fulfill at work. Only once a lower level of need has been met would a worker be motivated by the opportunity of the next need up in the hierarchy satisfied, for example a person who is dying of hunger will be motivated to achieve a basic wage in order to buy food before worrying about having a secure job contract or the respect of others.
So a business should offer different incentives to workers in order to help them fulfill each
need and progress up the hierarchy
, managers should recognise that workers are not all motivated in the same way and do not all move up the hierarchy at the same pace. They may therefore have to offer a slightly different
set of incentives from worker to worker.

He believed in a two-factor theory of motivation that there were certain
factors in a business that could directly motivate employees to work harder
(Motivators). However there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would not actually motivate employees to work harder when present (Hygienefactors)

Mcgregor proposed the X-Y theory in his 1960 book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise'. McGregor's ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people.
Theory X
workers could be described as; individuals who
dislike work
and avoid it where possible, individuals who lack ambition, dislike responsibility and prefer to be led
The implications for Theory X workers to achieve objectives, a business would need to have system control and punishment. On the other hand,
Theory Y
workers were seen as;
self-motivated and exercise self-control, in other works, happy to work.
Plagiarism is when someone wrongfully uses/steals the work of another authors thoughts, ideas, languages or expressions and uses it as their own original work. it is seen as serious because it is not only effectively stealing but also discrediting the original creator's peice of work. Of course the next argument would be what if someone isn't aware that they are plagiarizing? As Colleen MacDonell the head librarian at International College, a Pre-K–12 school in Beirut, Lebanon explains: "there's a lot more cutting and pasting taking place than we'd like to see. And while it's understandable that teachers would be tempted to give failing grades to plagiarized work, it's unfair to students who may not even know they're committing an offense".

When you are quoting or referring from someone else's work that is not yours you must state this to the reader. If this is not done it could be considered as plagiarism which could then result in failing that piece of work or the whole module. Most universities will use the Harvard referencing system to cite references. By using this system, citations in your writing should include the author's surname with the year of publication. The full details should then be listed at the bottom alphabetically by author’s name.
How does it relate to management and leadership?
*Can be discredited
*Not valuable
*Not using original work shows lack of someones own initiative.
*People can question the management skills used. (legal and ethical reasons)

Hall D. et al (2008), 'Business Studies A Level AQA 4th Edition', Essex, UK, Pearson Education
Hall D. et al (2008), 'Business Studies A Level AQA 4th Edition', Essex, UK, Pearson Education

Handy C. (1995) 'The Empty Raincoat' Great Britain, Arrow Books Limited
This is an online research management, writing and collaboration tool which is designed to help researchers easily gather, manage, store, and share all types of information. A main benefit of this is that it is very useful when referencing your work because you can automatically form a bibliography in seconds. Below is a list on how to start up on refworks:
Open your personal account
Personalise your view
Create your own library
Manage references
Insert citations and create a reference list

Hall D. et al (2008), 'Business Studies A Level AQA 4th Edition', Essex, UK, Pearson Education
Hall D. et al (2008), 'Business Studies A Level AQA 4th Edition', Essex, UK, Pearson Education

BYUI Library, (2010) Tutorial: Introduction to RefWorks [online].
Available at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=IMTel-oHx5s
Full transcript