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The Long March

Context Presentation for Honors 6 October 24, 2011
by

Josie Hall

on 28 November 2012

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Transcript of The Long March

"Chang ch'eng"
(The "Long March") China.1934-1935 The Red Army / The People's Liberation Army "The Workers' and Peasants' Army" Mao Zedong / Mao "Tse-tung" Chairman Mao December 26, 1893 - September 9, 1976 Chinese Communist Revolutionary
Guerrilla warfare strategist
Marxist political philosopher
Elected chairman of Soviet Republic of China in 1931. The Soviet Republic of China / Chinese Soviet Republic Established in 1931 with its capital in the Kiangsi (Jiangxi) Province. Considered the beginning of "Two Chinas."
Had its own bank, printed its own money, collected taxes through its own tax bureau.
Under Chairman Mao, expanded to 18,641 miles and reached a population of more than 3mil.
Military: Chinese Red Army
Expanding control and well-equipped military = making Chiang Kai-Shek's Kuomintang very nervous. Founded August 1, 1927 More than 140,000 members by the early 1930s.
Modern communication means: telephones, telegraphs, radios.
Transmitted messages in code and began to break Kuomintang codes.
Warlord armies were no match for the Red Army. Kuomintang
Encirclement
Campaigns Total of 5 campaigns were launched by the Kuomintang's National Revolutionary Army against Communist-occupied provinces.
Campaigns 1-4 were fought off under Mao's leadership of the Red Army. 1930-1934 Encirclement Campaign #5 Beginning on September 25, 1933, Chiang Kai-Shek launched the fifth encirclement campaign on the Red Army--what would be his final attempt at claiming Communist territory and uprooting the Soviet Republic of China.
By the middle of November, the Red Army had failed to win any battles or fend off the National Revolutionary Army's attacks. They were losing numbers and weapons against an enemy that was already better-armed in numbers and weapons. Many peasants were killed or died of starvation, and the Central Communist Committee removed Mao from power. He was replaced by Wang Ming, and his three associates took over command of the Red Army: Li De, Bo Gu, and Zhou Enlai.
Warlord armies, who had initially been reluctant to participate in Chiang's fifth campaign due to the first four failed attempts, began to engage in battle against the Red Army, further enhancing the NRA's advantage.
By late 1934, the outlook for the Red Army was dismal at best, and their spy network caught wind of Chiang Kai-Shek's plans to launch a final attack to claim the seven remaining Communist regions.
The largest Communist base in China had been lost, and the Red Army began its famed "Long March." Reasons for The Red Army's Failure: 1. Tactics changed.

2. Hostility towards the warlords changed.

3. Poor fortifications.

4. Intelligence.

5. Number. The Long march Beginning on October 16, 1934, the Communists embarked on their retreat out of Jiangxi, a move that potentially saved the Communist Party in China. The initial retreat consisted of 86,000 troops, 15,000 personnel, and 15 women. Weapons and supplies were carried on mens' backs or in horse-drawn carts.

The line of marchers stretched for 50 miles. Generally marched at night. "The Long March" Mao Zedong, 1935

The Red Army fears not the trials of the Long March
And thinks nothing of a thousand mountains and rivers.
The Wuling Ridges spread out like ripples;
The Wumeng Ranges roll like balls of clay.
Warmly are the cliffs wrapped in clouds washed by the Gold Sand;
Chilly are the iron chains lying across the width of the Great Ferry.
A thousand acres of snow on the Min Mountain delight
My troops who have just left them behind. The Long March is a manifesto. It has proclaimed to the world that the Red Army is an army of heroes, while the imperialists and their running dogs, Chiang Kai-shek and his like, are impotent. It has proclaimed their utter failure to encircle, pursue, obstruct and intercept us. The Long March is also a propaganda force. It has announced to some 200 million people in eleven provinces that the road of the Red Army is their only road to liberation. Basically, the new leadership tried to make some changes that didn't work too well.
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