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Shanae Liddle

on 18 May 2014

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Transcript of Cancer

Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is an extremely serious type of cancer that affects either one or both lungs in the human body, from a malignant tumour (Cancer Council NSW 2013).
Surgery for melanoma - Most common form of treatment, aims to cut out the cancer cells without effecting the normal cells and preventing the cancer from growing back.
Chemotherapy - Given via an injection of anti-cancer medication, aims to kill off cancer cells doing the least damage to normal cells.
A known side effects to surgery for melanoma is Lymphoedema, which is caused after surgery if a lymph channel becomes blocked and extra fluid builds up in the tissue.
Physical Examination: One way of diagnosing melanoma is through a physical examination, having a mole mapping done by a GP. This is the most common way of diagnosing melanoma.
Biopsy: A simple and quick procedure, where some or all of a mole is removed and sent away for tests to determine what is it. This can be performed by your GP.

Preventing melanoma can be summed up by using the five S (Seek, Slop, Slap, Slip and Slide). Seek shade, Slop on sunscreen, Slap on a hat, Slip on more clothes to protect skin and Slide on a pair of sunglasses.
Online Group 54
Group 4

Shanae Liddle
Trent Stoneman
Adriana Fitzgerald
Scott Mitchell


Valverde, Benjamin J. 2011 Liver Cancer: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment, In Cancer Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatments, Nova Science Publishers, Inc, Hauppauge N.Y

George, J, Kansil, M. Q, Penman, A. G, Porwal, M, Robotin, M. C, 2014, ‘Community-based prevention of hepatitis-B-related liver cancer’, Australian Insights, Vol. 92 issue no. 5, p374-379. 6p. 1 Chart.

Cancer Council NSW 2013, Lung Cancer, Cancer Council NSW, viewed 13 May 2014, < http://www.cancercouncil.com.au/lung-cancer/>.

Cancer Council NSW 2013, Lung Cancer Treatment, Cancer Council NSW, viewed 13 May 2014, < http://www.cancercouncil.com.au/lung-cancer/treatment/>.

Cancer Australia 2014, Lung Cancer, Cancer Australia, viewed 13 May 2014, < http://canceraustralia.gov.au/affected-cancer/cancer-types/lung-cancer>.

Melanoma Institute of Australia 2011, Melanoma Prevention, Melanoma Institute of Australia, viewed 5th May 2014, <http://www.melanoma.org.au/about-melanoma/prevention.html>

Melanoma Institute of Australia 2011, Melanoma Side Effects, Melanoma Institute of Australia, viewed 5th May 2014, <http://www.melanoma.org.au/about-melanoma/treatment/side-effects.html>

Melanoma Institute of Australia 2011, Melanoma Treatment Institutions, Melanoma Institute of Australia, viewed 5th May 2014, <http://www.melanoma.org.au/about-melanoma/treatment.html>

Lung cancer can be caused by smoking, being exposed to asbestos or other elements including steel, nickel, chrome and coal gas. Smoking is the most common cause of developing lung cancer.

Cancer Council NSW 2013
Lung cancer can be prevented through non-exposure to the risk factors. This includes not smoking, not exposing yourself to asbestos and other elements.

Lung cancer is diagnosed by conducting tests on a person to investigate symptoms that have occurred. Such tests include X-rays, examination of sputum sample, computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All of these tests allow a doctor to gain a thorough view of the patients body and see any growths.

Cancer Australia 2014
There are three main treatment options for lung cancer, including surgery to remove the tumour, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which can also remove the tumour.

Cancer Council NSW 2013
This information resource provides information on Leukemia, lung cancer, liver cancer and melanoma. Viewers will enhance their knowledge of these cancers, while also creating awareness of these. In analysing these different types of cancer, information has been provided on possible causes, effects of individual cancers, diagnosis methods, prevention strategies and treatment options. Two main approaches were utilised in ensuring credible and reliable sources were used; an objective approach Metzger’s (2007) checklist. By using these approaches, accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency and coverage were able to be determined and subsequently making the information found credible and able to be used in a sound analysis. The information used was up to date within the last three years, either from a government authorised website, industry body or an article or book that provided qualified authors contact information and additional references to source out the authors credibility.
Liver cancer or primary liver cancer (HCC) remains one of the most common lethal cancers in the world. Development of the disease is usually related to viral infections, liver disease, alcoholic liver damage, or ingestions of carcinogens. (Valverde, 2011, pp 103)
Within this presentation, although the topic is of great significance, it is also necessary for the information to be relevant, accurate and credible to educate the audience. The references have been determined based on their accuracy, the author’s credibility and the date of publication. In researching credibility it has led to education on topics such as diagnosis, effects, treatment methods, any preventative actions and any possible causes for each cancer type. The creator of the publication and their material has been further investigated to determine the truthful value before being included within this document. Cancer affects everyone in the community, it is best we remain accurate in our education for deterrence.

This is the most dangerous form of cancer, it is trigger when an un repaired DNA cell is mutated due to the exposure of UV rays from the sun or any other forms of bright light. (Skincancer.org)
Leukemia is found in the blood-forming cells of the body, normally found in bone marrow (Cancer Council Victoria, 2013)
Upon researching the causes of Leukemia, both the Cancer Council (2014) and the Leikemia Foundation (2014) have agreed that patients with proven genetic history, exposure to intense radiation and certain chemicals such as benzene, and viruses such as the Human T-Cell leukaemia virus are more likely to attract this cancer form.
Liver Cancer
As the causes of liver cancer are numerous, preventative approaches have been implemented in communities. Monica C Robotin et al, describes that increasing awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B and using antiviral treatments can prevent Liver cancer and HCC.


Liver cancer affects the physical, psychological and social dimensions in a person’s life. Its affects on patients are negative and can cause pain, fatigue, nausea, jaundice, weight loss, and a change in body image. (Valverde, 2011)

As the diagnosis of patients with liver cancer varies, Valverde, 2011 describes different ways in which a persons liver cancer can be detected such as:
. Radiology
. Biopsy
. AFP Serologuy
. MRI (with a 81% accuracy rating)
. CT (with a 68% accuracy rating)


Valverde, 2011, lists certain toxins that when largely accumulated, damage to the liver cells and DNA intern ultimately cal lead to liver cancer and/or HCC (extracellular carcinoma). These toxins include:
. Alcohol
. Aflatoxin – B1
. Toxic accumulation of iron resulting from hereditary hemochromatosis
. Toxic accumulation of copper resulting from Wilson’s disease
. Transition Metal Accumulation and Hepatocarcinogenesis
. Vinyl Chloride

There are many treatments available for people with liver cancer and HCC such surgery, local ablative therapy, hepatic artery transcatheter treatment, and systemic treatment, however, these treatments are not applicable to all patients and can cause further complications. (Valverde, 2011)
According to the Cancer Council (2014) there is no current proven prevention measures in place for any of the forms of Leukemia.
The treatment and it’s intensity is usually determined from the type of Leukemia detected in the body. If the patient has an acute form of Leukemia they are in urgent need of attention and treatment begins within 24 hours of diagnosis being established (Leukemia Foundation Australia, 2014). Some of the treatments that are used include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapies, stem cell transplantation, daily oral tablets or if needed a combination of these can be used (Leukemia Foundation Australia, 2014). The chronic form of cancer cells can take a while to develop and therefore their treatment is a long term strategy which can include tyrosine kinase inhibitory therapy, biologic therapy, chemotherapy variations, donor lymphocyte infusion, surgery (removal of spleen), radiation, monoclonal antibody therapy.
In order for a diagnosis to be confirmed, a patient will need to undergo a series of tests, including a blood test, bone marrow biopsy, chest x-ray and lumbar puncture, to conclude the type of Leukemia that they have.
The main effects on the body include:
• tiredness and/or anaemia
• repeated infections
• increased bruising and bleeding
Other less common symptoms can include:
• bone pain
• swollen/ tender gums
• skin rashes
• headaches
• vision problems
• vomiting
• enlarged lymph glands
• enlarged spleen that may cause pain or discomfort
• chest pains
(Cancer Council Australia, 2014)
There are many effects of lung cancer, and these can be very prominent.

Effects include:
• a new or changed cough
• coughing up blood
• chest infection
• pain in the chest
• shortness of breath
• hoarse voice.

Cancer Australia 2014
Liver Cancer
Melanomas are made up of many cells which multiply without the bodies regular system. It has not been discovered how they develop but a significant link between sunlight and melanoma can be made. People with high exposure to Ultraviolet rays are more likely to have a melanoma.
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