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World History Honors - Africa

A presentation on the anticolonial movement in Africa
by

Kate Hall

on 20 May 2010

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Transcript of World History Honors - Africa

Africa: Nationalism, Political Identities, and the End of Empire Africa Under Colonial
Domination The Great War and Depression slowed
the movement for independence Not self suficient economies The Great War in Africa Except for Spanish colonies, everyone was involved German colonies were a target for the Allies More than 1,000,000 African soldiers particitaped Many administrative and commercial personnel began to leave
this encouarged militant uprisings
most were a response to compulsory military participation At the end of the war European peacemakers ignored African pleas for reform Colonial Economy Colonial taxation was designed to drive Africans into the labor force. Sometimes officials used forced labor when taxes didn’t create a large enough labor force. Europeans wanted Africans to pay for the institutions that kept them under European power and they wanted to create export-oriented economies. African Nationalism "New Elite" This class was composed of native, urban individuals, often educated in Europe. New ideas about African identity and nationhood grew from these people Frequently embraced the European idea of the nation as a way of forming unity between the different African groups. European Roots; Local Influences Found identities based on ethnicity, religion, and languages. Race was an important concept.
US blacks and Afro-Caribbeans thought of themselves as members of a single race Identity was also rooted in geography. Négritude Went along with grassroots protests against European imperialism. The movement of widely shared pride in Africa. Some independent Christian churches were also paths to anti-colonial movements. After WWII, poets expressed their attachment to Africanness and encouraged fellow Africans to turn away from European culture an practices. Decolonization in Africa Independence Imperial powers belived that Africans were incapable of self-government and planned slowed very slow move to independence. They feircly put down any revolutions.
May 1945 French colonial police fired in to a peaceful protest, spurring rioting and even more repression by the French 1947 Kikuyu (ethnic group in Kenya) rebels started a violent campaign against the European colonial rule 1952 British declare a state of emergency to try to crush the anticolonial guerillas and mounted a major assault Africans were determined to gain independence and eventually overcame the British and French 1954 French war in Algeria. it was so violent and bloody that the French allowed the Algferians to have Algeria back. The National Liberation Front tok leadership in Algeria 1956 France gives Morocco and Tunisia independence 1957 Ghana gains independence from Great Britain. Hallmark for Africa’s end of empire
1959 British lift state of emergency in Kenya and political parties formed with national leaders emerging 1960 “The Year of Africa”, where 13 countries gained independence Franzt Fanon
Algerian revolutionary leader
Influential supporter of liberation through violent revolution
Provided ideological support for African nationalism through his writings

Kwame Nkrumah
Persuasive spokesperson for pan-African unity
Leader of Ghana the first sub-Saharan nation to gain independence form imperial rule

Jomo Kenyatta
Member of “new elite”
Spent 15 years in Europe learning
Immensely articulate nationalist
Led Kenya to independence from Britain

Imperial Racism African Leaders Many Africans were disappointed when after contributing to the war effort, their actions were unrewarded. Aftermath of Decolonization Difficulties Freedom was often accompanied by outbreaks of civil war, economic instability and political and ethnic divisiveness made nation building difficult—post WWII optimism faded over time National unity was difficult to achieve especially because of numerous conflicts between ethnic groups in the same states. Poverty also helped to prevent the newly independent nations from creating sound economic and political infrastructures. Organization of African Unity (OAU) Created in 1963 by 32 member states. Attempted to prevent conflicts that could lead to the intervention by former colonial powers. Also promoted pan-African unity. African nations have been unable to avoid internal conflicts. South Africa Black population was the majority but they remained dispossessed and disfranchised so white settlers were able to long delay their freedom. Black activism and calls for political reform scared the white population after WWII.
In response, a harsh new set of laws, called apartheid, were issued in 1948 to repress the blacks. The African Nation Congress (ANC) gained new young leaders like Nelson Mandela who inspired direct action against apartheid. In 1961 South Africa declared itself a republic and no longer a part of the British Commonwealth. Eventually, the effects of widespread black agitation and a powerful international anti-apartheid movement led to reform and recognition that South Africa needed to change. In 1994 Mandela became the first black president of South Africa. Democratic Republic of the Congo Reconfigured as Zaire in 1971. Mobutu Sese Seko ruled as a dictator and devastated the nation’s economy, until he was ousted by Laurent Kabila in 1997, who was assisinated in 2001. Joseph Kabila worked to promote democratic elections and a new constitution approved in 2005. He was then elected president in 2006. Africa still is home to the world’s lowest per capita incomes and has little industrial development. African nations’ populations continue to grow and so do hopes of a new generation of economic solutions that can promote the health and welfare of those populations. African states continue to attempt wider integration into the global economy and to nurture close cooperation between themselves.
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