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Transcript of Photography Technology
1855: The stereoscopic era begins. Direct positive images on glass (ambrotypes) and metal (tintypes or ferrotypes).
1888: The first Kodak camera is introduced. It contained a 20' roll of paper and was upgraded one year later to a roll of film.
1906: Panchromatic black and white film and high quality color separation color photography is made available.
1907: Autochrome plates, the first commercial color film, is manufactured by Lumiere brothers in France.
1936: Development of the first color multi-layered color film called Kodachrome.
Development of Exakta, pioneering 35 mm single-lense reflex (SLR) camera.
1948: Hasselblad offers the first medium-format SLR for commercial sale.
Pentax introduces the automatic diaphragm.
Polaroid sells instant black and white film.
1963: The first color instant film is developed by Polaroid.
The Instamatic is release by Kodak.
The first underwater camera is introduced by Nikon(os?)
1972: 110-format cameras are introduced by Kodak with a 13x17mm frame.
1991: Kodak DCS-100, first digital SLR, a modified Nikon F3 is introduced.
2000: The first camera phone is introduced in Japan by Sharp/J-Phone.
2001: The end of an era: Polaroid goes bankrupt.
2004: Kodak ceases production of film cameras and focuses strictly on the digital format.
Bate, D. (2009).
Photography: the key concepts
. New York: Berg.
Carrabine, E. (2012).
Just images: Aesthetics, Ethics and Visual Criminology
. Colchester, UK: Oxford
Cunningham, C. (2013).
Social networking and impression management
. Plymouth, UK: Lexington Books.
Griffin, E. (2009).
A first look at communication theory
(7.th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Gustavson, T. (2009).
Camera: A history of photography from daguerreotype to digital
. New York, NY: Sterling Innovation
Kappas, A., & Krämer, N. C. (2012).
Face-to-face communication over the Internet: emotions in a web of culture, language, and technology.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Perlman, V.S., Weisgram, R. (2006).
. New York, NY: Allworth Press.
Rosenblum, N. (1984).
A world history of photography
. New York, NY: Abbeville Press
1834: Henry Fox Talbot creates negative images using paper soaked in silver chloride and fixed with a salt solution. Talbot created positive images by contact printing onto another sheet of paper.
1837: Frenchman, Louis Daguerre creates images on silver-plated copper. This will become known as the Daguerreotype process.
1851: Frederick Scott Archer improves photographic resolution by spreading a mixture of collodion and chemicals on sheets of glass. Wet plate collodion photography was much cheaper than daguerreotypes, the negative/positive process permitted unlimited reproductions.
1877: Eadweard Myubridge settles a famous argument asking if a horse's four hooves leave the ground at once by time-sequenced photos.
James Clerk-Maxwell demonstrates the "color separation" method.
Matthew Brady and his staff cover the American Civil War. Over 7,000 photos were taken.
1871: Richard Leach Maddox proposes using an emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide on a glass plate, thus introducing the "dry plate" process. Dry plates were available commercially in 1878.
1880: George Eastman establishes Eastman Dry Plate Co. in Rochester, New York. The first half-tone photograph appears in a daily newspaper, the New York Graphic.
Photography has evolved significantly since the Mid - 1800's
Started out as developing images on paper; has become historical and sociological discourse
Occurred through three historical periods in which photography was seen as art, then mass media, and finally rhetoric (Bate, 2009, pp. 27-28).
This can be seen in magazines, advertisements, and interpersonal exchanges.
Pictorial communications give rise to cues that help us interact with each other.
Social presence theory asserts that visual cues give us information about personality and social characteristics of others in order to determine our affinity to them (Kappas & Kramer, 2012, p. 22).
Griffin (2009) describes social presence theory as Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) texters' lack of interpersonal connectedness because of this style of "impersonal, individualistic and task oriented" communication (p.138).
Hyperpersonal theory suggests that CMC users develop closer relationships with other CMC users than if their relationships were developed in close proximity to each other (Griffin, 2009, p. 144).
Social presence theory was applied to still photos as a means of communication for Computer Mediated Communication (Kappas & Krämer, 2012, p.22).
The hypothesis was that people who knew each other through CMC would react less positively towards a partner’s photographic appearance (Kappas & Krämer, 2012, p.22).
The study found that though subjects worked harder at creating a more pleasant personal appearance, they were judged to be less attractive (Kappas & Krämer, 2012, p.22).
In addition, “one a photo is shared, an individual’s attractiveness becomes fixed” (Kappas & Krämer, 2012, p.23).
Who owns the photograph?
The person or identity who owns the copyright has exclusive control over the photograph (Perlman & Weisgram, 2006, p. 1). They also have control over who may use the photograph and under specific conditions of that use (Perlman & Weisgram, 2006, pp. 2-3).
This concept is called licensing and covers public displays and publishing, as well as reproduction (Perlman & Weisgram, 2006, pp. 2-3).
The law that governs copyright privileges is the Copyright Act of 1976.
This statue pertains to all photographs already under copyright before January 1, 1978, and all photographs taken after this date. “Copyrights generally last for the life of the creator plus seventy years” say Perlman and Weisgram (2006, p. 28).
However, (2006), the Visual Arts Rights Act of 1990 does not protect the right for photographers to obtain credit for their work or to stop any modifications to their photographs when reproduced over 200 times (pp. 23-24).
Copyright owners do not always have to grant a formal license.
An example of this would be a photographer taking pictures and distributing the prints to family members (Perlman & Weisgram, 2006, p. 1).
The act of giving the pictures away to the family members grants the recipients implied permission to show the picture to a limited group of people (Perlman & Weisgram, 2006, p. 2).
The right to the activities associated with those pictures ends with respect to publishing and public displays (Perlman & Weisgram, 2006, p. 2).
1913: Oskar Barnack develops a camera using the modern 24x36mm frame and sprocketed 35mm movie film.
1917: Nippon Kogaku K.K., which will eventually become Nikon, is established in Tokyo.
1924: Leitz markets a version of Barnack's camera commercially as the "Leica", the first high quality 35mm camera.
1932: Inception of Technicolor for movies, where three black and white negatives were made in the same camera using different filters.
1934: Fuji Photo Film is founded. By 1938, Fuji is making cameras, lenses, and film.
Bate (2009) writes that pictures should be viewed as a “project that asks why pictures were taken, what they were used for, how they were made to signify, for whom and where” (p. 15). Tagg links photography to semiotics when he says “the photographic signifier (the picture) only has a signified (meaning) within the signifying discourse that uses it” (Bate, 2009, p. 15). A key component of visual media is the portrait. The concept of portraits as capturing identity that creates meaning goes back to the 1850’s.
Utilization in Social Media
The development of digital visual photographic devices has allowed one to be able to create their own identity through visual media. Kappas and Krämer (2012) say that these devices have given users the ability to more deliberately construct a representation of self (Kappas & Krämer, p.43). How do people use still photography in SMS? They attempt to create a copy of their reality in order to share that representation to their contacts (Kappas & Krämer, 2012, p.44). The purpose is to create social connections with whomever they are sharing photos with (Kappas & Krämer, 2012, p. 44).
This representation is based around two main features: the message, and the sender’s intentions (Kappas & Krämer, p.43).
These features are the key components for forming multiple genres from which visual representations can be communication (Kappas & Krämer, p.44).
Figure one shows the relationships between representation and intended effect.
Figure 1. Use of potential genres in the telecommunication of facial information. (Kappas & Krämer, 2012, p.44).
The genres above can be related to impression management and strategies such as ingratiation, intimidation, self-promotion, exemplification, and supplication as outlined by Cunningham (2012, pp.22-23). In fact, any of these components together can build a complex visual story as translated by the viewer about the subject, whether factual or not.
Social Implications of SNS Photography
The ability for people to instantaneously share pictures of themselves on SNS has not only given users a platform to display themselves, but provided tools that allow for unlimited distribution.
How do people use still photography in SMS? They attempt to create a copy of their reality in order to share that representation to their contacts (Kappas & Krämer, 2012, p.44).
The purpose is to create social connections with whomever they are sharing photos with (Kappas & Krämer, 2012, pp. 44-45).
Researchers found that SMS still photography accelerates the spread of fads and other physical-appearance related items within social groups (Kappas & Krämer, 2012, pp. 44-45).
In addition, the transfer of knowledge, emergency alerts, and news happens faster because of ability to access SNS instantaneously (Kappas & Krämer, 2012, pp. 44-45). Further, because anyone can have access to social media platforms, anyone can become a connector (Kappas & Krämer, 2012, pp. 44-45).
Those who have more skill and better equipment are more likely to take better pictures, and therefore become more influential in their social circle (Kappas & Krämer, 2012, pp. 44-45).
The downside of unfettered still photography is the ability for people to catch one another in compromising situations, violate another’s privacy, and not have as much, if any, control over their presentation of self (Kappas & Krämer, 2012, pp. 44-45).
Pictures can spread throughout the SMS world without permission from either the photographer or the subject (Kappas & Krämer, 2012, p. 45).
Photojournalism originated in war reporting, and provided a sobering counterpoint to the official battlefield art produced by "war artists" which tended to glamorize combat (Carrabine, 2012, ).
Historical sites, sacred places and exotic natives each became subjects of the lens as colonial empires expanded (Carrabine, 2012).
Despite claims for its accuracy, photography did not so much record the real as signify and construct it (Carrabine, 2012 as referenced from Ryan, 1997: 214).
Documentary photography was not only concerned wiht anthropological exploration, but was used to promote social reform and change (Carrabine, 2012).
"It has become a well-worn observation that it is impossible to get through a day without encountering a photograph"
~Eamonn Carrabine, 2012
Photography should demand not "just an image" but "a just image" ( Carabine, 2012 as referenced from Sontag, 1977: 20)
Visual interpretation should never be an end in and of itself, but must always have a goal of social and political explanation firmly in sight (Carrabine, 2012).
Cattle Skull, Badlands
, gelatine silver print, 1936 (George Eastman House)
Highbrow: Abstract view of image; allegories or symbols' ("very symbol of toil")
Lowbrow: ethical virtues of image; ("poor thing!")
Never an aesethic judgement
(Carrabine, 2012 as referenced from Bourdieu, 2984: 44-5)
Yet images can be scrutinized and scandalized for the impression of lacking "truthfulness" as with Rothstein's photo.
Timeline (Gustavson, 2009)