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Transcript of Humanistic-Aesthetic Approach
Humanistic-Aesthetic Approach in Education
Five Principles of Humanist Paradigm - as developed by Elias and Merriam in 1980
Creating Humanistic-Aesthetic Activities
Carl Rogers believed that we can only fulfill ourselves if we are happy. He said that the key to happiness is knowing that those around you will like you unconditionally, regardless of what you do with your life. There is a conflict between what a person is and what a person wants to be. People worry that the people around them will only like them if they have and keep certain merits (being physically fit or good at something). This, humanist psychologists would argue, results in a variety of odd behaviors, since we often invent achievements that we think we will be happy with that are very unlikely.
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Humanistic Aesthetic Approach
Do something right - get reward
Do something wrong - punishment
Can also build desired reactions off of a certain stimulus.
What happens when...
A student calls out in class?...
A student properly raises their hand?...
A student turns in their homework late?...
Turns it in early?...
What if the reward no longer fetches the desired result?
What happens when the students don't care that you need them to do something?
The D-Needs, or deficiency needs, exist in Maslow's research as base primal needs, that once achieved, can lead to true knowledge.
Top rung of the pyramid.
We look to develop our own potential and seek self-fulfilment, looking for new experiences and personal growth.
He claims only a few rare and remarkable people are ever able to do.
Have the ability to put the welfare of others before themselves.
Learning Centered Teaching
In 1969, Rogers applied his Client-Based Therapy theories to education. Similar to the classic person-centered educational system.
Feeling a sense of congruency between one's self and what one feels they should be.
Difficult to completely line up these expectations, but how close they are is a strong indication of overall health
Conditions for Healthy Growth
By therapists (and teachers) providing empathy, openness, and unconditional positive regard, people (and students) are able to be fostered into healthy growth.
Role of teacher is “facilitator, helper, and partner.”
On your own:
Come up with an idea for a humanistic aesthetic activity for your classroom.
Consider how the activity is based on the principles of humanistic aesthetic education.
With a partner:
Describe your lesson.
Explain how it meets the principles of humanistic aesthetic philosophy.
Give and accept positive feedback.
Considers people and their individuality instead of generalizing human behavior.
Gives qualitative data which provides great insight into people and their perceptions.
Give accurate information about particular people who have had particular experiences.
Conflict with established religious/societal views.
Achieving balance between individual and societal goals.
Conflict with behaviorism.
Classes that fall into Aestheticism
.......most of Cab.
What it accomplishes
The ability for students to:
-discover the world
...all through different means than traditional curriculum.
How to bring Aestheticism into the classroom?
What are some ways that you can bring appreciation for the world and unique ways to look at the world into your teachings?
Brockett, R. (1998) Humanism as an Instructional Paradigm.
Retrieved October 6, 2013, from http://www-distance.syr.edu/romira1&.html.
Elias, J.L., & Merriam, S. (1980). Philosophical foundations of
adult education. Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger.
Nussbaum, Martha. (2006). Teaching Humanity; In our
globalized world, an arts education is more crucial than ever as a way to cultivate sympathy for others. Newsweek International.
Shapiro, S.B. (1986). Survey of basic instructional value in
humanistic education. Journal of Humanistic Education and Development, 24(4), 144-158.
Abraham Maslow developed a pyramid of human needs, believing that in order for us to be truly happy, we must climb this pyramid. In order to get to the next stage, he claims, you must first have all of the lower prerequisites.
According to him, every individual has
a strong desire to realize his/her full potential.
Adds two next levels after first design:
Cognitive Needs - Pursue knowledge and meaning to life.
Aesthetic Needs - Appreciate and search for all things beautiful.
Added levels of 1970
Recap on Bahaviorism
Behaviorism believes that learning and the human reaction is based on an anticipated reward/a rewards system, and that by cultivating that desire for said reward, behavior can be positively guided towards a specific mean.
1. Physiological - Our most primary needs: food, drink, shelter, air, warmth, sex ...
2. Safety - Stability in our lives and we are protected from things like weather, crime and all other physical dangers.
3. Belonging and Love - Having healthy relationships and family bonds.
4. Esteem - Achievements, self-esteem, and skills. Working on our status in society (jobs and promotions), our dominance, and our independence in life.
16 Principles of Humanistic-Aesthetic Education
Assembled by Shapiro in 1986 after surveying 89 experts in humanistic education.
What overarching themes can we identify through these many principles?
Example: Cooperation with other humans.
Using the 16...
Examine the list of principles with a partner.
Think of some overarching themes
Growth is “best fostered in a cooperative, supportive environment.”
Learning is “highly personal.”
Goal is “self-actualization.”
Whole Class Sharing
The curricular design that deals with the art, beauty, and individuality of the world.