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Evoulution

THIS IS DONE DO NOT TOUCH!!!
by

Dharmesh Patel

on 23 April 2010

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Transcript of Evoulution

Evolution Theories of Evolution Aristotle (384-322 BC)

His theory was based
upon that living things
(including organisms)
'wanted' to change from
being simple to being
complex. e.g. from being
single-celled to multi-celled. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)

His theory was that organisms
change as a result of their
surroundings. e.g. the
giraffe. He says that giraffes got
long necks from stretchiing for leaves. Charles Darwin ( 1809-1882)

Darwins theory was that species
gradually changed from one form
by natural selection.His view was
was scientifical. His ideas were
published and were very popular. Individuals that are poorly adapted to their environment are less likely to survive and reproduce than those that are well adapted. Similarly, it is possible that a species that is poorly adapted to its environment will not survive and will become extinct.
Here are some of the factors that can cause a species to become extinct:
•changes to the environment, such as a change in climate
•new diseases
•new predators
•new competitors
The fossil record shows that many species have become extinct since life on Earth began. Extinction is still happening and a lot of it occurs because of human activities. We compete with other living things for space, food and water, and we are very successful predators.

What is evolution?
· development: a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage); "the development of ...
· (biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms.
What is evolution? Fossils
•Dead plants or animals bodies get buried by sediments (sand and clay)
•Layers of sedinments press down on them
•The pressure of the sediments become very high
•Over millions of years, this pressure gradually changes the remains into stone.
Evidence for evolution - fossils

Fossils of ammonites - sea creatures that became extinct about 65 million years ago
Most of the evidence for evolution comes from the fossil record. Fossils show how much, or how little, organisms have changed over time. One of the problems with the fossil record is that it contains gaps. Not all organisms fossilise well, and there will be many fossils that have been destroyed by the movements of the Earth, or simply not yet been discovered.
Individuals that are poorly adapted to their environment are less likely to survive and reproduce than those that are well adapted. Similarly, it is possible that a species that is poorly adapted to its environment will not survive and will become extinct.
Here are some of the factors that can cause a species to become extinct:
•changes to the environment, such as a change in climate
•new diseases
•new predators
•new competitors
The fossil record shows that many species have become extinct since life on Earth began. Extinction is still happening and a lot of it occurs because of human activities. We compete with other living things for space, food and water, and we are very successful predators.
Extinction Extincition of an animal
The Dodo

Engraving of the extinct dodo
The dodo was a large flightless bird that lived on Mauritius, an island in the Indian Ocean. The island was uninhabited and the dodo had no natural predators. Then Mauritius was colonised by the Dutch in 1638. Dodos were hunted for food and easy to catch because they were not afraid of people. New competitors were brought onto the island, including pigs, cats and rats, which ate the dodos' eggs and their young. Within 80 years, the dodo was extinct.



Dinosaurs

Dinosaurs were the most dominant creatures for over 160 million
years. There were over 1000 different pecies of them. 65.5 million years ago a mass extinction event happend called the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction Event. It happend in a geological short period of time and many animals and plant species were destroyed. There are two main theories about why they became extinct. since no-one was alive when it happened there are no clear records. Experts say that there was either an increased amount of volcanic activity or a large meteorite collided with the earth killing many of the species of animals. So what happened...YOU DECIDE! Fossils are the remains of plants and
animals that lived millions of years
ago. They are made in four ways... How do we Know?

Darwin’s ideas have been about for 150 years, and they haven’t always been popular. At first scientists played around with several different ideas.
DNA...?

Another line of evidence to support evolution is DNA. DNA is a molecule which is in almost every cell in your body. It carries the instructions needed to build an organism, a bit like building blue prints or an instruction manual, and is passed on from generation to generation during reproduction. All living things on our planet use DNA as their instruction manual which is a clue in itself! That fact suggests all life is related, just as we expect from Darwin’s theory. Evolution in Action!

DNA and fossils give us clues about the past, but evolution still happens! It’s ongoing and will keep going for as long as life exists and we can even see it happening! One of the best examples comes from a bunch of birds on the Galapagos Islands known as Darwin’s Finches because they helped to make Darwin think about evolution when he saw them during his round the world trip.
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