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Copy of EKISTICS
Transcript of Copy of EKISTICS
C.A. Doxiadis, Ekistics (London, Hutchinson, 1968), pp. 31-33.
C.A. Doxiadis, "Order in the field of ekistics," Ekistics, vol. 19, no. 110 (January 1965).
Botka, D. (1995), ‘Islamabad after 33 years’, Ekistics, 62, pp.209-235.
• Capital Development Authority (CDA) (1993), ‘Modalities & Procedures: Framed
Under ICT Zoning Regulations, 1992’, Islamabad.
• Dogar, N. (1985), ‘The Twin City of Islamabad/Rawalpindi: An Evaluative Study of
Twenty-Five Years of Plan Implementation’, unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Asian Institute
of Technology, Bangkok.
• Doxiadis, C. (1965), ‘Islamabad, the Creation of a New Capital’, Town Planning
Review, 36(1), pp.1-28.
• Doxiadis, C. (1967), ‘On Linear Cities’, Town Planning Review, 38(1), pp.35-42.
• Frantzeskakis, J. (1995), ‘Configuration, Hierarchy and Spacing of the Urban Road
Network in Islamabad’, Ekistics, 62, pp.236-241.
• Husain, I. (1984), ‘Raising Resources for Development’, in, Burki, S. and LaPorte. R.
(Eds.), Pakistan’s Development Priorities: Choices for the Future, Karachi: Oxford
University Press, pp.103-136.
• Meier, R. (1985), ‘Islamabad is already Twenty Five’, Ekistics, May/June, pp.212-216.
• Pott, J. (1964), ‘Impressions of Islamabad – West Pakistan’, Housing Review, 13(3),
• Stephenson, G. (1970), ‘Two Newly Created Capitals: Islamabad and Brasilia’, Town
Planning Review, 41, pp.317-353.
• Taylor, N. (1967), ‘Islamabad, a Progress Report on Pakistan’s New Capital’,
Architectural Review, 141(841), pp.211-216.
• UNDP (2002), ‘Katchi Abadis and Some Viable Alternatives: A Case Study and
Operational Guidelines based on the Capital Development Authority, Islamabad’s
Approach 1998 to 2000’, Islamabad.
the art of place making
Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis
14 May 1914 – 28 June 1975
Was a Greek architect 1935 and town planner.
1937 he was appointed Chief Town Planning Officer for the Greater Athens Area
1940 - 1950 Head of the Department of Regional and Town Planning in the Ministry of Public Works (Greece)
He became known as the lead architect of Islamabad, the new capital of Pakistan, and later as the father of Ekistics.
He proposed ekistics as a science of human settlement and outlined its scope, aims, intellectual framework and relevance.
"Ekistics starts with the premise that human settlements are susceptible of systematic investigation".
The first element, represents the ecosystem within which rural settlements
must exist. It involves a number of component processes including the hydrologic
cycle, biosystems, airsheds, climatic zones, etc.
"MAN" himself is also constantly adapting and changing.
The medical profession, in its move from "barbarism" to concepts of the constitution of the healthy
individual, can contribute many important inputs to the better organization of urban
The realm of SOCIETY comprises all those aspects of the urban or rural scene that
are commonly dealt with by sociologists, economists and administrators: population trends, social customs, income and occupations, and the systems of urban
SHELLS, or the built environment, is the traditional domain of the architectural and
NETWORKS provide the glue for all systems of urbanization. Their changes profoundly affect urban patterns and urban scale.
SYNTHESIS arises from a consideration of the interactions of all the ekistic elements in terms of a single ekistic unit.
"include units as small as a bed, where
Anthropos settles for one night, and as large as the entire surface of the planet."
Anthropos – 1
room – 2
house – 5
housegroup (hamlet) – 40
small neighborhood (village) – 250
neighborhood – 1,500
small polis (town) – 10,000
polis (city) – 75,000
small metropolis – 500,000
metropolis – 4 million
small megalopolis – 25 million
megalopolis – 150 million
small eperopolis – 750 million
eperopolis – 7,500 million
Ecumenopolis – 50,000 million
Around the turn of the century, Patrick Geddes, a Scottish botanist better known as
the "father of town planning," developed the first matrix for urban analysis.
The CIAM Grid, invented a generation later by Le Corbusier, a Swiss
architect and urbanist who practiced throughout the world.
Then, in the mid-1950s, C.A. Doxiadis conceived both Ekistics, the science of human
settlements, and its representation on a grid.
A major contribution of the ekistic grid is that it incorporates a complete spectrum of the
range of human settlements — from the single man to the world — encompassing
Ecumenopolis. This makes it a most powerful tool for urban analysis.
The the ekistic elements are not the only items that can occupy the ordinate of the ekistic grid.
Same grid is used to relate the ekistic units with historic time (past, present and future). This immediately points up the spectacular recent growth of megalopolises.
Helpful to use the traditional academic disciplinary fields (sociology, economics, political science, technology, the arts).
Or the ordinate may be used for percentage ratings of a special factor, such as population types, housing types, etc.
Use of the ekistic grid in this way can serve as means of opening up many insights into the processes of urbanization.
The target is to build the city of optimum size, that is, a city which respects human dimensions.
Since there is no point in resisting development, we should try to accommodate technological evolution and the needs of man within the same settlement in terms of size and quality.
1- Maximization of man’s potential contacts with the elements of nature with other people and with the works of man
2- Minimization of the effort required for the achievement of man’s actual and potential contacts
3- Optimization of man’s protective space, which means the selection of such a distance from other persons, animals, or objects that he can keep the contacts with them (first principles) without any kind of sensory and psychological discomfort
4- Optimization of the quality of the man’s relationship with his environment, which consists of nature, society, shells and networks
5- Man organizes his settlements in order to achieve an optimum synthesis of the other four principles, and this optimization is dependent on time and space, on actual conditions, and on man’s ability to create a synthesis.
Principles behind the creation of
Principles behind the creation of human settlements:
Studies have shown that certain physical and psychological diseases are directly associated with urbanization. These include obesity, respiratory ailments and alienation (anomie).
Mass-produced, anonymous housing can cater for the needs of very diverse individuals and family groupings (no personalization)
Mark Roseland talked about the same principle "Community Capital Resources" - Desegregation of resources
Doxiadis Application of his principles
The original Master Plan of Metropolitan
Islamabad was based on the principles of
the ‘dynametropolis – dynamic
metropolis’ comprised of Islamabad,
Rawalpindi and National Park.
Doxiadis (1967) argued that. Islamabad could be differentiate from liner city in terms of absence of size,
dynamicity in nature and its growth in unidirection.
The city was conceived into grid-iron patterns developed into 2 km x 2 km sectors segregated by the hierarchy of wide principal roads
1992 - CDA Development Standards:
• Residential (min. plot 200 sq.yard) 55%
• Open/Green Spaces/Parks 8%
• Roads and Streets (min. width 40 ft.) 26%
• Graveyard 2%
• Commercial and parking 5%
• Public buildings e.g. school, hospital, 4%
community centers etc
Postives of the Utopia
1- The plan was a rigid as well as flexible in nature
2- Well implemented in the new urban areas of Islamabad - CDA implement the plan easily in vacant areas
3- The decision for building Islamabad close to the existing city of Rawalpindi was a very wise one.
Negatives of the Utopia
1- CDA fails to implement the plan where complex situation arise with Rawalpindi
Stake Holders Involvement
2- Does not involve proper institutional agreement – therefore, original Master Plan has become weak and problems were gradually appeared
3- It did not include all the stakeholders and therefore, plan was hard for only the governmental entity to implement.
Accordingly, 1992 the CDA had to change policies and incorporate the corporate section and other sections of the community to achieve a better urban plan
Synoptic Theory of Planning
4- Three hierarchal government orders were become responsible to implement original Master Plan for Islamabad. (Following, Synoptic theory) rather than (collaborative planning)
5- Islamabad absorbed the lion’s share of resources for development; even higher than the average spend on other cities.
Rawalpindi suffered the most from limited resources eaten by Islamabad
Lack of Understanding and Accomodation of current problems - More of a new empty (young) city approach
4- Environmental Sustainability:
- Ecological analysis before planning
- Productive landscape - agro-grid, urban agro-farm
5- Clear hierarchy of residential communities, of the related functions and of the transport system are apparent in the segregation of the various categories of movements (i.e. high/low speed Road Traffic, Public Transport, Bicycles, Pedestrians, etc.) and in the reduction of trip lengths.
Name: Salma Aboul-ela
Major Cities influenced:
The term Ekistics (coined by Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis in 1942) applies to the science of human settlements. It includes regional, city, community planning and dwelling design.
In application, conclusions are drawn aimed at achieving harmony between the inhabitants of a settlement and their physical and socio-cultural environments