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Should we reimpose Death Penalty?

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Junalyn Olfindo

on 4 March 2014

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Transcript of Should we reimpose Death Penalty?

• Lebanon
• Lesotho
• Libya
• Malaysia
• Mongolia
• Nigeria
• North Korea
• Oman
• Pakistan
• Palestinian Authority
• Qatar
• St. Kitts and Nevis
• St. Lucia
• St. Vincent and the Grenadines
• Saudi Arabia
• Singapore
• Somalia
• South Sudan
• Sudan
• Syria
• Taiwan
• Thailand
• Trinidad and Tobago
• Uganda
• United Arab Emirates
• United States
• Vietnam
• Yemen
• Zimbabwe


Capital punishment
or the death penalty is a legal process whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The judicial decree that someone be punished in this manner is a
death sentence
, while the actual enforcement is an
execution
.
“Let us restore the death penalty for heinous crimes. I always say, if you do the crime, you do the time. Now I say, if you do a heinous crime, then you can say goodbye to your time.”
March 2014
Death Penalty in the Philippines
What is Death Penalty?
Sotto bill revives death penalty


List of methods of capital punishment
Descriptions of Execution Methods
10 countries with the most executions
MANILA, Philippines—Alarmed by the influx of heinous crimes, Senator Vicente “Tito” Sotto III has sought the revival of Republic Act 7659 or the Death Penalty Law in the country through lethal injection.

In filing Senate Bill 2080 known as “An Act imposing death penalty in the Philippines,” Sotto sought to repeal Republic Act No. 9346 otherwise known as “An act prohibiting the imposition of Death Penalty in the Philippines…”

“The influx of heinous crimes committed poses an alarming situation in the country nowadays,” he said in his explanatory note in the bill.

“The imposed penalty of death shall be carried out through lethal injection. Republic Act No. 8177 otherwise known as the Act Designating Death by Lethal Injection is thus hereby revived and activated,” it further said.



• Beheading
-(Saudi Arabia, Qatar)

• Electric chair
-(as an option in Alabama, Tennessee, Virginia, South Carolina, Florida, Oklahoma and Kentucky in the USA)

• Gas chamber
-(California, Missouri and Arizona in the USA)

• Hanging
- (Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Mongolia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Palestinian National Authority, Lebanon, Yemen, Egypt, India, Myanmar, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Syria, Zimbabwe, South Korea, Malawi, Liberia, Chad, Washington in the USA)

• Lethal injection
- (Guatemala, Thailand, the People's Republic of China, Vietnam, all states in the USA that are using capital punishment)

Capital punishment in the Philippines has a varied history and was suspended on June 24, 2006, the second time since 1987.

Filipinos have mixed opinions about the death penalty, with many opposing it on religious and humanitarian grounds, while others advocate it as a way of deterring crimes.
The following methods of execution permitted for use in 2010:
Should we reimpose Death Penalty?
Our Conclusion
Our research on issues on the death penalty is one of the most debatable in the criminal justice system. Today, there are many pros and cons to this death penalty issues. However, if people weigh the arguments properly, and have empathy for the victims, they will be more inclined to favor capital punishment.

If we reimposed Death penalty again, it might help us to curtail future murderers, thus, we can save more lives.
Crimes that can result in a death penalty are known as
capital crimes
or
capital offenses
.
The term capital originates from the Latin word
capitalis
, literally "regarding the head".
Capital punishment has, in the past, been practiced by most societies, as a punishment for criminals, and political or religious dissidents.

Historically, the carrying out of the death sentence was often accompanied by torture, and executions were most often public.
Currently 58 nations actively practice capital punishment, 98 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, 7 have abolished it for ordinary crimes only (maintain it for special circumstances such as war crimes), and 35 have abolished it de facto (have not used it for at least ten years and/or are under moratorium) .

Amnesty International considers most countries abolitionist; overall, the organization considers 140 countries to be abolitionist in law or practice. About 90% of all executions in the world take place in Asia.
Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in various countries and states, and positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region.
• Afghanistan
• Antigua and Barbuda
• Bahamas
• Bahrain
• Bangladesh
• Barbados
• Belarus
• Belize
• Botswana
• Chad
• China (People's Republic)
• Comoros
• Congo (Democratic Republic)
• Cuba
• Dominica
• Egypt
• Equatorial Guinea
• Ethiopia
• Guatemala
• Guinea
• Guyana
• India
• Indonesia
• Iran
• Iraq
• Jamaica
• Japan
• Jordan
• Kuwait

• Lesotho
• Lebanon
• Libya
• Malaysia
• Mongolia
• Nigeria
• North Korea
• Oman
• Pakistan
• Palestinian Authority
• Qatar
• St. Kitts and Nevis
• St. Lucia
• St. Vincent and the Grenadines
• Saudi Arabia
• Singapore
• Somalia
• South Sudan
• Sudan
• Syria
• Taiwan
• Thailand
• Trinidad and Tobago
• Uganda
• United Arab Emirates
• United States
• Vietnam
• Yemen
• Zimbabwe


History of death penalty in the Philippines

Although its origins seem lost in obscurity, the imposition of death as punishment for violation of law or custom, religious or secular, is an ancient practice.

We do know that our forefathers killed to avenge themselves and their kin and that initially, the criminal law was used to compensate for a wrong done to a private party or his family, not to punish in the name of the state.

By way of background, the death penalty was reintroduced after the 1987 Constitution through Republic Act No. 7659, which treats two types of crimes: (1) crimes penalized by reclusion perpetua to death; and (2) crimes penalized by mandatory capital punishment upon the attendance of certain specified qualifying circumstances. On 24 June 2006, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed into law Republic Act No. 9346, entitled “An Act Prohibiting the Imposition of Death Penalty in the Philippines”.
The capital crimes after regaining full independence were murder, rape and treason. Notable cases included
Julio Gullien
, executed for attempting to assassinate President Manuel Roxas, or
Marcial "Baby" Ama
, electrocuted at the age of 16 on October 4, 1961 for murders committed while in prison for lesser charges. "Baby" Ama became the subject of a famous 1976 film Bitayin Si baby Ama. In total, 51 people were electrocuted up to 1961.
Another famous death penalty case was of former powerful Governor of Negros Occidental Rafael Lacson and 22 of his allies, condemned to die in August 1954 for the murder of a political opponent. Execution numbers climbed under President Michael Melo. Ironically, Melo himself was sentenced to death in 1939 for murder of his father's political opponent, although he was acquitted on appeal.
A well-publicized triple execution took place in May 1972, when Jaime José, Basilio Pineda, and Edgardo Aquino were electrocuted for the 1967 abduction and gang-rape of the young actress Maggie dela Riva, which was ordered broadcast on national television.
Under the Marcos regime, drug trafficking also became punishable with death by firing squad. A notable execution was that of drug trafficker Lim Seng, whose death in December 1972 also was broadcast on national television.
1946 to 1986
Methods of execution included beheading, electrocution, hanging, lethal injection and various kinds of shooting (by firing squad, and at close range to the heart or the head). Public executions were known to have been carried out in Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia and Somalia. In Saudi Arabia, executions are usually beheadings with a sword. In one case recorded by Amnesty, a Sudanese man's head was sewn back onto his body and hung from a pole in a public place.
Lethal Injection

Two needles (one is a back-up) are then inserted into usable veins, usually in the inmate’s arms. Long tubes connect the needle through a hole in a cement block wall to several intravenous drips. The first is a harmless saline solution that is started immediately. Then, at the warden's signal, a curtain is raised exposing the inmate to the witnesses in an adjoining room. Then, the inmate is injected with sodium thiopental - an anesthetic, which puts the inmate to sleep. Next flows pavulon or pancuronium bromide, which paralyzes the entire muscle system and stops the inmate's breathing. Finally, the flow of potassium chloride stops the heart.

Death results from anesthetic overdose and respiratory and cardiac arrest while the condemned person is unconscious. If a member of the execution team injects the drugs into a muscle instead of a vein, or if the needle becomes clogged, extreme pain can result.
Electrocution

For execution by the electric chair, the person is usually shaved and strapped to a chair with belts that cross his chest, groin, legs, and arms. A metal skullcap-shaped electrode is attached to the scalp and forehead over a sponge moistened with saline. The prisoner is then blindfolded. After the execution team has withdrawn to the observation room, the warden signals the executioner, who pulls a handle to connect the power supply. A jolt of between 500 and 2000 volts, which lasts for about 30 seconds, is given. The current surges and is then turned off, at which time the body is seen to relax. The doctors wait a few seconds for the body to cool down and then check to see if the inmate's heart is still beating. If it is, another jolt is applied. This process continues until the prisoner is dead. The prisoner's hands often grip the chair and there may be violent movement of the limbs which can result in dislocation or fractures. The tissues swell. Defecation occurs. Steam or smoke rises and there is a smell of burning.

Gas Chamber

A stethoscope is typically affixed to the inmate so that a doctor outside the chamber can pronounce death. Once everyone has left the chamber, the room is sealed. The warden then gives a signal to the executioner who flicks a lever that releases crystals of sodium cyanide into the pail. This causes a chemical reaction that releases hydrogen cyanide gas. The prisoner is instructed to breathe deeply to speed up the process. Most prisoners, however, try to hold their breath, and some struggle. The inmate does not lose consciousness immediately. According to former executioner, "At first there is evidence of extreme horror, pain, and strangling. The eyes pop. The skin turns purple and the victim begins to drool." "The person is unquestionably experiencing pain and extreme anxiety...The sensation is similar to the pain felt by a person during a heart attack, where essentially the heart is being deprived of oxygen." The inmate dies from hypoxia, the cutting-off of oxygen to the brain.

Firing Squad

For execution by this method, the inmate is typically bound to a chair with leather straps across his waist and head, in front of an oval-shaped canvas wall. The chair is surrounded by sandbags to absorb the inmate's blood. A black hood is pulled over the inmate's head. A doctor locates the inmate's heart with a stethoscope and pins a circular white cloth target over it. Standing in an enclosure 20 feet away, five shooters are armed with .30 caliber rifles loaded with single rounds. One of the shooters is given blank rounds. Each of the shooters aims his rifle through a slot in the canvas and fires at the inmate. The prisoner dies as a result of blood loss caused by rupture of the heart or a large blood vessel, or tearing of the lungs. The person shot loses consciousness when shock causes a fall in the supply of blood to the brain. If the shooters miss the heart, by accident or intention, the prisoner bleeds to death slowly.

Hanging

For execution by this method, the inmate may be weighed the day before the execution, and a rehearsal is done using a sandbag of the same weight as the prisoner. Immediately before the execution, the prisoner's hands and legs are secured, he or she is blindfolded, and the noose is placed around the neck, with the knot behind the left ear. The execution takes place when a trap-door is opened and the prisoner falls through. The prisoner's weight should cause a rapid fracture-dislocation of the neck. However, instantaneous death rarely occurs.

If the inmate has strong neck muscles, is very light, if the 'drop' is too short, or the noose has been wrongly positioned, the fracture-dislocation is not rapid and death results from slow asphyxiation. If this occurs the face becomes engorged, the tongue protrudes, the eyes pop, the body defecates, and violent movements of the limbs occur.

Philippine Method

The Philippines was the only country aside from the United States that used the electric chair, due to its being introduced during the US colonial period. Until its first abolition in 1987, the country reverted to using death by firing squad. After re-introduction of the death penalty in 1993, the country switched to lethal injection as its sole method of execution.

Thank you!
Junalyn Olfindo
Czarina Mae Reyes
Vladimir Malimit
English IV
Are you in favor of re-imposing
Death Penalty?
Full transcript