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The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and Children's Crusade

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Peter Monh

on 14 January 2014

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Transcript of The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and Children's Crusade

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and Children's Crusade.
The First Crusade
In the First Crusade, four nobles led the Crusade. Also, the First Crusade did a very important part in Medieval England . They attempt to re-capture Jerusalem but the Muslims took it first.After 1076. any of the Christians who wanted to pay the pilgrimages to the city faced a very difficult time. All the Christians were very mad. Then Alexius the First of Constantinople called Pope Urban the Second to give him help. Urban talked to a great crowd at Clermont in France in 1095. He called war to the Muslims so that Jerusalem was regained for the Christians faith. The First Crusade first target was the city of Nicea. It wasn't to much trouble. There next target was Antioch. They laid a siege in June 1098. Then a traitor let them through a opening in a cell wall after 9 months. The next target was Jerusalem. After Antioch fell, the Crusaders surrounded Jerusalem and the scaled the city wall. They massacred Muslims and the Jews throughout the city. It was victorious.
The Second Crusade
The people who were involved in the 2nd Crusade was the Muslims and the kings. The Muslims captured Edessa in 1. After one year, Pope Eugenius the 3rd declared a crusade. Louis the 7th led the French and Conrad the 3rd of Germany. Also, the Seljuks captured most of Antioch and well on to unify most of Muslim world from Syria to Egypt. After the Muslims captured the Edessa, Christians answered to the Crusade by mounting them. In 1148, the second army arrived in Jerusalem. Muslims from Edessa went to the ctiy's aid and fought back the Crusade. The French army defeated the Second Crusade at Jerusalem. The Second Crusade had a long standing consequences for Jerusalem. Damascus no longer trust them and the city was passed onto Nur ad-Din in 1154.
The Third Crusade
Richard the 1st, Saladin, Frederick the 1st, and Philip the 2nd Augustus were involved. The 3 greatest monarchs except Saladin, led the 3rd Crusade. Barbarossa march was one of the best organised of any the Crusades and the Germans didn't suffer crossing Anatolia but late in the summer , Frederick as drowned. Philip and Richard's relationship suffered a lot. While Philip and Richard tying to take control of the siege, Saladin united Egypt, Syria, and lands to the East. Another is he formed the Muslims. He led the re-newed fight against the Crusades at the Holy Land. Saladin took most of Palestine. Then Saladins' armies captured Jerusalem in 1187. Jerusalem were shocked Europeans and the 3rd Crusade were defeated. Then in 1191, Richard's army were forcd to surrender Acre. Later, Richard fought way up to Jerusalem but his army wasn't strong enough. But at the end, he was able to sign the peace treaty with Saladin.
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The Forth Crusade
The Byzantine empire, Venetians, and Alexios 4th and 5th. Some of the Crusaders goal is to travel the Holy land. The armies of the 4th Crusade capture Constantinople in 1204. When they attcak Constantinople, Pope Innocent the 3rd has issued edicts forbidding attacks on Christian lands, but by this stage churchmen argued that they had sufficient cause to the fight the 'heretics'. On April 12, 1204, 20,000 men and a fleet of about 200 shipd crewed by Venetian sailors and warriors broke in and began to loot the greatest metropolis in the Christian world. The relationships between the the Byzantium and the West were often characterized as the clash of cultures. When Innocent the 3rd launched a recruitment for the 4th Crusade, he was unable to enlist the kings of the West. There was one king, Alexios the 4th. The Crusade and Venetians demanded that Mourtzouphlos hounour the contract which Alexios refused. When he refused, the Crusade attack his city. Later thr Byzantines hurled big projectiles on the enemy siege engines. After that Alexios the 5th 's army fought them on the land and the Venetians fought on the sea. At the end few members of the 4th Crusade reached there goal- the Holy Lnad.
The Children's Crusade
Peasant children from France and Germany were involved in the 4th Crusade. In 1212, there were 2 groups that set off on a Crusade to the Holy Land. The children were convinced that they would be protected by the god because of this protection they would get to the Holy Land and take Jerusalem. The person who was in charge in the French group was Stephen of Cloyes. He was 12 years old and a German shepheard boy. In May 1212, King Philip of France wasn't impressed by Stephen and he told him to go away and come back when he was old. By June, Stephen gathered 30,000 followers. Then the children boarded 7 boats and all of them were gone. In 1212, the German's Crusade took place. There was a leader who had 20,000 followers and it was Nicholas. Nicholas dream was the same as Stephen. The German Crusade also included religious men and unmarried women. Their journey was long, but they survived to push to Rome in Italy. When they got there, the Pope praised their braverly but the children was to young to take venture. When they traveled back, they went different ways. Few of the children reached to the Holy Lnad and some made as far as European port cities. Then the Later Crusades suceeded in re-capturing Jerusalem.
Jews, Christians, and the Muslims
One of the groups that considered the Holy Land is the Jews. They considered the Holy Land because Jerusalem was the spiritual capital and their great temple had once stood. Another is the Jews ancient Jewish Temple is the holiest place in the world of Jews. The second group is the Christians. Christians considered the Holy Land because Christians organized several crusades to recover the Jerusalem and other sites of Pilgrimage. Christians worried about the fate of the Holy Land, especially Jerusalem. Also, Christians feared that they would no longer be able to visit the Jerusalem and other sacred sites in the Holy Land. Last groups is the Muslims. The Muslims come under the control near the East. Another is Muslims built a shrine in Jerusalem and marked a spot where they believed Muhammad rose to heaven. The Muslims was placed where Muhammad where Muhammad rose to heaven during his night journey.


Bibliography

Frey, Wendy. The Medieval World and Beyond. Palo Alto: T.C.I , 2005

Trueman, Chris." The First Crusade." History Learning Site. 2000-2013 6 January 2014 < www.historylearningsite.co.uk/first_crusade.htm#>

Trueman, Chris. " The Children's Crusade." History Learning Site. 2000-2003 6 January 2014 < www.historylearningsite.co.uk/childrens_crusade.htm

"The crusades." From 1100 to 1270. 6 January 2014 <individual.utoronto.ca/hayes/survey2/04_crusades.htm>

J. , Rickard. " The Third Crusade, 1189-1192" Military History Encyclopedia on the Web. 24 March 2001 6 January 2014 < www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_crusade3rd.html

Nash, Tim. " The Second Crusade" The Finer Times. 2008-2014 6 January 2014 < www.thefinertimes.com/Middle-Eastern-Wars/ the-second-crusades.html
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