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Codes and conventions of factual production
Transcript of Codes and conventions of factual production
It is a classic form of documentary, one of the five main type. They are non fiction documenatries that emphasizes verbal commentary and argumentative logic The performative documentaries demonstarte how personal experiences can give a better understanding of a topic
The documentaries do this by stressing the emotional complexity of experience from the
view of the filmmaker. Recognises the subjective and emotional parts of documentary, and presents ideas as part of a context, having different meanings for different people, and is often autobiographical. Codes and Conventions of Performative Journalism
•The producer and the crew are usually in the documentary
•The producer comments on the progression of making the documentary.
•The documentary is often shaped into the narrative of an investigation or search, possibly without a satisfactory conclusion.
•The documentary addresses the audience in a direct and emotional way. Examples: TV shows and films like A&E Biography; America’s Most Wanted; Also a alot of science and nature documentaries; Ken Burns’ The Civil War (1990); Robert Hughes’ The Shock of the New (1980); John Berger’s Ways Of Seeing (1974). History This mode first emerged in the 1920's and their main aim generally is to persuade the viewer. Codes and Conventions The main conventions of expository documentaries are:
A commentator- Voiceover to commentate or narrate what is happening in the images or video clips.
Commentator is usually a confident male voice called "The Voice of God"
Editing is used to make the images link together and so that it goes with the commentary that is being said over the images.
Facts are used to back up and prove the point being made.
Opinions are used as well as facts.
Persuasive techniques such as: Rhetorical questions are used to allow viewers to think about the question that is being asked.
Interviews are used to back-up the arguments
Images are used to illustrate what is happening.
The narrator reads any text that appears on the screen, such as the contact details. Narrations may not be seen visually, but the audience still accepts the narration as authoritive meaning it is correct. The documentaries narration may be shared between people. This is often used in documentaries like Emergency 999 and Crimewatch (BBC), where experts, witnesses and participants might do the narration. This shows the audience more than one view on the same event. This type documentary addresses its viewer directly. And to present an explanation, interpreting what they see on the screen. Expository Mode Performative Documentary Performative documentaries emphasise subjective experience and emotions to the viewer. They are personal and might include theoretical portrayals of events designed to make the viewer experience what it is like looking through someone elses view and out of our own lifes, e.g. Jenny Livingston’s Paris Is Burning (1991). Observational Documentaries In the 1960s technology became advanced and cameras became smaller and lighter, meaning producers were able to film people’s lives without interacting with them. This type of documentary tends to typically have no commentators doing voice overs.
No extra music or sound.
No historical re-enactments.
Also nothing is repeated for the camera there is only one shoot and it does not include any interviews.
Long duration shots.
The producers do not interfere with the people in the documentary
The people in the documentary act as if they are not being filmed Codes and Conventions Examples This documentary does not alter any event that has taken place. This shows the viewer exactly what has happened. This also means that not much editing has been done. Big Brother: this is a good example. This documentary is non fiction and is a reality TV show. The participants live in a house together for a period of a few months. They are being filmed through out. They act as if they are not being filmed and act as they normally would. The viewers judge and get to know the participants identities by observing them. Producers like Wiseman, Pennebaker, Richard Leacock and Robert Drew, who believed that the filmmaker should be a “fly-on-the-wall” who observes but tries to not influence or alter the events being filmed. Jean Rouch and Edgar Morin's Chronicle Of A Summer(1960), which interviews several Parisians about their lives. Interactive Media Codes and Conventions Reflexive Media Reflexive documentaries have the producer in them and they narrate also this type of documentary shows the audience how the documentary is made. ivelolabil The purpose of reflexive documentaries is to show the audience exactly how the film is being made from the producers view. This type of documentary has a direct approach to the audience. Another thing that makes reflexive documentaries interesting is that they are unpredictable both making and watching them. When the producer is making the film he/she does not know what is coming their way. The same goes with the audience they do not know what to expect.
An example of this type of documentary is Bear Grylls this documentary is about a survival expert who goes the pacific islands and survives there. He shows the audience his survival skills; there is one part where he is demonstrating a skill and cuts himself accidently, he was seriously injured. This shows the audience how dangerous the situation was and what he went through.
Also the reflexive documentaries aim to show the audience the truth by showing them everything again this is the same as the definition; whereas other documentaries edit and take out parts. Reflexive documentaries do not edit and show the audience exactly what the film maker sees. History One of earliest reflexive documentaries that had the film maker in the video was Man with a Movie Camera (1929). In the 1950’s when camera technology started to develop reflexive documentaries became more popular. Portable cameras allowed the camera man to show the audience clearly what was going on; this also helped make the documentaries more convincing. Codes and Conventions The codes and conventions of reflexive documentaries are:
The audience is shown everything while the film is being made.
Mostly no editing is done, bad language, violence and disturbing images are kept
The documentary shows the producer going arriving and shooting the film and then leaving.
The producers’ role is vital; the producer narrates through out the documentary;
It uses some techniques from fiction film for an emotional, subjective response
Emphasises the expressive nature of film, anti realist techniques e.g, re enactments, expressive lighting, dramatic music;
When the producer is doing a voice over; the tone of their voice is likely to be questioning and uncertain, rather than authoritative
They trust suggestions rather than facts Examples An example of Reflexive Documentary producer is Nick Broomfield. He is best known for his reflexive style of documentary making. He often films with him and a camera man, this makes the documentary seem more personal. Also at times he shows his crew i.e. camera man, this is a very common reflexive documentary style. He has significantly influenced the documentary world, and many famous film makers are inspired by him.
An example of his documentary is “Driving Me Crazy” it shows Nick Broomfield in front of the camera with his film crew, and it shows a lot about making the film rather than the actual content.
http://www.nickbroomfield.com/DMC_trailer.html Interactive Media documnetaris are:
The producer and the subject are recorded when they meet; the producer engages with the situation they are documenting a lot. The producer asks questions relevant to their topic, sharing experiences with them. Codes and Conventions Codes and Conventions of Interactive Media documentaries are:
The producer and the crew interact with subject
Interviews are used
They use news; footages, newspapers headlines, letters etc
They tend to have a handheld camera
Long takes are used to dominate
There is direct sound recording used
A voice over is used which is usually the producer
The audience can see the producer who interferes and takes part in the action.
Rely of the honesty of witnesses Examples Biggie and Tupac. I this documentary images, footages, and interviews are used. The producer does a voice over to explain the situation and what is going on. The camera man and the producer are shown to the audience.
http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xjuxr_biggie-and-tupac-documentary-pt1_music Example Alain Resnais’ Night And Fog (1955), has a voice over which is done by a Holocaust survivior Jean Cayrol. This is not a historical account of the Holocaust but instead a subjective account of it; it is about the memories of the survivor. In this type of documentary the producer does not interfere on interact with anything that is happening. It allows the audience to look at what’s going on and observe. This is popular in reality shows and animal documentaries. Examples By Mavish