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An overview of Open Access

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Leah Maughan

on 14 October 2014

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Transcript of An overview of Open Access

What is Open Access?
The road ahead...
Thank you!
CILIP North Eastern Regional Members Network
What is Open Access and its key issues
Leah Maughan
Teesside University
Research is done
Article Written
Article accepted by journal on condition of review
Article reviewed by academics
Reviewed version accepted for publication
Research is published
Individuals and institutions with a subscription can read the research
The author or their funders pay to make the article freely available on the internet
The article is published as normal but the author deposits a version in a repository
Digital Collections Librarian
Peer Review
Why Open Access
Price and Permission
Free (at the point of use) to download and read to anyone with an internet connection
Free (at the point of use) to download and read
and reuse
to anyone with an internet connection
The primary concern for an academic in publishing a journal article is prestige or impact

Getting your research read, understood and acted upon is important in securing funding and furthering the research.
A large amount of research is funded by the taxpayer through government research grants but relatively few have access to or benefit from the final results.
Advances in e-publishing and the internet mean it is possible for anyone to find relevant research published online
The Finch report has placed the UK at the forefront of the worldwide Open Access Movement by recommending all publicly funded research should be Open Access.

...recommending the Gold route with repositories hosting "reports, working papers and other grey literature"
All articles published in the title are freely available to discover and download to anyone with an internet connection
Suber, P. (2006) SPARC (http://legacy.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/newsletter/11-02-06.htm#nofee) [16/10/13]
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/repository?q=repository [Accesed: 05/02/2014]
Most HE institutions have a repository to showcase their research outputs but there are also subject and geographic repositories.
Finding a Repository
You can use online tools such as OpenDOAR or ROAR to look up repositories where you might find relevant research or be able to archive your own research.
Hybrid Gold
'Open Access is the free, immediate, online access to research... coupled with the right to use these articles fully in the digital environment'
Individual articles within a traditional subscription model journal can be made available through open access
You might see this reflected in the title list as a green traffic light or with an open padlock symbol.
http://www.sparc.arl.org/issues/open-access [Accessed: 20/05/2014]
Journal articles, scholarly monographs,
conference proceedings
Gold OA journals may charge an APC (Article Processing Charge) for publication
some will publish research for Open Access without a fee and receive their funding through a variety of other means...
Increasing access to research has the potential to allow advances in the field of study which would otherwise not have been possible.
Opening Access to research increases accountability & makes the relevance of Higher Education to society more obvious
Photo: marsmet tallahassee Flikr (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
Therefore the more people who read your work the better... making your work Open Access allows more people the opportunity to use it.
Photo: Spyros Papaspyropoulos FLIKR (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Changing the World?
Why here? Why now?
The Finch Report, the Government’s acceptance of its key recommendations, the new RCUK policies on open access, and the consultation by the Funding Councils on possible open access requirements for material to be submitted to the REF expected in 2020, have changed the open access landscape in the UK. All those with a stake in the scholarly communications process – research funders, universities, publishers and not least researchers themselves – are responding to that new landscape and the issues to which it gives rise.
http://www.researchinfonet.org/finch/ (Accessed: 21/05/2014)
Photo: xkcd.com (Accessed: 21/05/2014)
The internet...
HEFCE & REF 2020
To be eligible for the next REF exercise:
There are now a range of options for delivering papers to the reading public and there is not space here to list them all, so here is a sample. An author may publish their article in a journal that is owned and operated by a publisher or academic society, which requires transfer of copyright to the publisher, or — as is often the case — an exclusive license to publish. These journals may be delivered by subscription to institutions, which then make the content available to all their stakeholders within their institution. Some journals will offer the journal as a subscription, but also accept fees from the author to make the article freely available, while still sitting within a library subscription holding. This is the hybrid option, and quite understandably runs the risk of being seen as double dipping by the paying customer – the library. Another option is for authors to have their paper made available through a journal that has a subscription business model, but then after a period of time (and in some cases the payment of a fee by the author), the article is made freely available. A further business model is for an author to pay a fee and have their work made freely available in a journal that purely relies on the author fees as a business model.

In addition, governments, funding agencies, and institutions all influence what their researchers may or may not do; thus, the landscape for any researcher in any discipline is, to say the least, confusing. Am I required by my funder to make my work freely available? When does this need to happen? Should I pay the significant fees I am being asked for to publish my paper open access, and if so where do I find those funds? From my funder? From my institution? Or, from my own pocket? Does my institution require me to post my article in their freely available repository? If so, which version of my paper should I put there?
Harrington (2014) 'Open Access: Fundamentals to Fundamentalists' The Scholarly Kitchen: May 22, 2014
Journal articles and conference proceedings (with an ISSN)
Published AFTER April 2016
Must be discoverable within 3 months of being ACCEPTED for publication
The full text should be available as OA 1 month after this
Gold, Green or In Between?
Working Group on Expanding Access to Published Research Findings (2012)
Accessibility, sustainability, excellence: how to expand access to research publications [Executive Summary].
Available online at: http://www.researchinfonet.org/publish/finch/ (Accessed: 27/05/2014)
Ayris (2014) '
An institutional approach to Open Access: developments at UCL
' University Health and Medical Librarians Group Spring Forum 2014
Royal Society of Medicine 28-Feb-2014
Piecemeal adoption by various institutions and countries however could prove costly
Who is Going for Gold? and Why?
Publishers -
Gold can be driven by Article Processing Charges (APCs) therefore fits with the 'for profit' business model
However embargoes on green effectively protect their way of life
The move to Gold has been (and is) haphazard and messy...
Finch & RCUK - Both have decided to support the Gold model as a move away from the current publishing model.
There is a widespread view that the current, subscriptions based, publishing model is 'broken'. That with the electronic tools at our disposal we could change the way research is done and perhaps - change the world?
Green OA cannot be the catalyst we need to make this change as it fits into the current publishing practice
PLOS- Public Library of Science
PLOS has been a large success with its authors

Making important steps towards proving that a new research system could be workable,

from this position of strength they are now able to further shape the change

Implementing different Metrics, different peer review and open data
Image: PLOS from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PLoS_ONE_logo.jpg(CC BY 2.5)
Image: Plaster Sculpture by aoiyoru available at http://aoiyoru.deviantart.com/art/Plaster-Sculpture-274019661 (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)
Image: Bodypainting, performance dans l'exposition "Couleurs sur corps" (CNRS) by russavia Available: commons.wikimedia.org (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Oh the Humanities!
In HESS the scholarly monograph plays a bigger role
Journal articles may not be published electronically
The 'lifecycle' of the research article may be significantly longer than in STEM - Publishers have applied 12-24 month embargo periods
The Open Library of the Humanities: https://www.openlibhums.org/
Initiatives have begun to attempt to make OA more relevant for HESS
...using a PLOS style model to create a sustainable, non-profit, technologically advanced, reputable and rigorously peer reviewed Open Access publication model
The resurgence of the University Press as an OA publisher
'The UCL Press imprint, which it had previously licensed to commercial publishers, was repatriated by the university earlier this year. UCL Press is now a department within the institution’s Library Services'
Jump (2013) 'UCL presses ahead with open access'. Times Higher Education 19 December 2013
Using the institutional repository as a publishing platform
Encouraging students to publish
Offering free OA publishing for Staff
Offering an alternative to the costly Monograph used in the Humanities,
publish a little often
Non-standard research
Multi-sited work like a performance or film screening
Images of artworks, am I describing the art or the image?
The relationship between the upload and the record might be tenuous for example:
'A record describing a site-specific generative sound recording, which is accompanied by a photograph of the site, rather than (or in addition to) an audio file'
Nadim & Randal (2013) Defiant Objects: Research Report.Project Report. Goldsmiths, University of London, London.
jisc KULTUR & KAPTUR aim to develop guidance to assist repository managers to better record non-standard research objects and data
Open Data
Text Mining
Peer Review and Metrics
PLOS was set up to facilitate change in scholarly publishing
PLOS One is unconstrained by size
Keeps article level metrics
Will publish ANY research which meets its editorial criteria (being scientifically rigorous, ethically sound and properly reported)
PLOS One can publish much more information than a 'normal' journal including:

Unsuccessful Research
Repeated Research
Research for text mining
Analysing large amounts of text or data to find information not available to a human reader.
Open Access works which restrict
of the work effectively prohibit text mining.

While some publishers will allow this for subscribed content many block the re-use of Green (& Gold) OA material.
Some UK funders require authors to make their final work available for text mining, usually this involves choosing the correct license to make the work available under (CC-BY)
* changes to UK copyright law now enable researchers to copy work for the purposes of text mining
Gold DOAJ + Discovery
Open Access Button
Green Resources + CORE & Open Mirror
Peer review
Predatory journals
Aims to be the one stop shop for Gold OA journals- providing a mediated service which only registers journals which have been quality vetted. The Directory can 'plug in' to library discovery platforms increasing access to OA works.
Disparate resources
Variations on metadata
Incomplete metadata
'Connecting REpositories by automatically linking Open Access research publications'
CORE by KMi (Open University)
Single search for Green Deposits
Jisc Open Mirror
'Imagine if all the UK’s open access research publications were available from a single place, clearly identified with their provenance and the rights that readers had to use them...'
(Jacobs (2013) 'What could you do with an open mirror?' Blog post Available http://www.jisc.ac.uk/blog/what-could-you-do-with-an-open-mirror-22-oct-2013 (Accessed: 03/06/2014)
Assessing the value of such a project to the UK research community
Show global restrictions imposed by paywalls
Get access to the research you need
Created by undergraduate students frustrated by hitting paywalls during learning and research
Current version is a bookmarklet you can use to flag restrictions to research- also points to other sources
Data is constantly generated by research
Without facilities to share data, value may be lost
Data sets may be created over again (a costly process)
There may be useful data sets in existence which are never reported on - the research is not published in a Journal/monograph
Issues with Data
Nature of the data - figures/images/transcripts
Confidentiality - medical/social studies
Making data meaningful
Authors with research council funding may find they are required to make their data publicly available
More on research data:
JISC Managing Research Data
Digital Curation Centre (DCC)
Traditional metrics based on the wider journal
Metrics taken into account in assessment of research
Leading to a scrum to publish in 'higher impact' journals
Higher impact journals are not usually OA
Are they the best place for the research?
Article Level Metrics
It is now easy to track citations for individual articles
Journal based metrics are now considered a poor indicator for individual articles, a small percentage of articles can skew a journal impact factor
Scientific impact is difficult to accurately measure using a single indicator
Fenner (2013) 'What can article level metrics do for you?' PLOS Collections DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001687
Looking at article impact in social media
A more granular way of measuring impact?
How many times has an article been
saved in an online reference manager
blogged about
discussed in a comments section
Tweeted or shared
Fenner (2013) 'What can article level metrics do for you?' PLOS Collections DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001687
It can take weeks or months for an article to be reviewed
Rapid review assesses the rigour of the research without judging its content
Some academics have proposed an alternative form of peer review where articles published under 'rapid review' could then be content assessed in an associated discussion
Are journal impact factors fit for purpose
Concerns over the peer review process
Opportunities afforded by electronic publishing
Granular nature of Gold OA publishing
Gold Journal funding models:
Institutional subsidies- university, laboratory, hospital or research centre
Revenue from traditional publication
Auxiliary services
Membership dues

Library pays for subscription
Library pays for Gold OA publication
Wait... didn't I pay you already?
Double Dipping
Don't the library pay for that too?
From JISC report 'Going for Gold' Houghton & Swan
Some journals - notably those unconstrained by size- operate rapid review
If all research were to move to OA overnight the savings for an individual institution would be sizable.
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