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The Cold War

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Matthew Hansen

on 23 March 2016

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Transcript of The Cold War

The Cold War
And You
Our Journey Begins
After the end of World War II, Germany, and its capital city Berlin were divided into four sectors as per the countless (4) conferences we discussed during World War II.
Can you name the conferences?
Why were there four sectors?

Germany: A Country Divided
According to the Potsdam Conference, The United Kingdom, France, The United States and The Soviet Union would all occupy Germany and each be given a sector of the country and its capital to control.
You have been given a map of both Germany and Berlin. We would like you to take a few moments and think of the most logical way to divide the country and the capital.
Once you have a plan, carve up Germany like the Schwarzwald Kuchen that it is.
In the space provided on the map, write down a rationale of why you did what you did.
Containment and the Original Deal for Germany
The original plan called for all four countries to work together to rule and rebuild Germany.
The plan also called for all four sectors to be joined together again as one country sometime in the future.
In 1947 the United States began a policy to stop the spread of communism. This is known as
CONTAINMENT.
It was articulated politically as the Truman Doctrine. One of the first major actions the U.S. took toward containment was the Marshall Plan which stipulated that the U.S. would put up the modern day equivalent of $136 billion to rebuild Germany and other war torn countries, including the U.S.S.R.
What are the potential problems with this plan?
Why would the US finance the rebuilding of Germany?
How could the Marshall Plan help the U.S. in their policy of Containment?
Between 1946 and 1947 the Allied plan of rejoining the sectors of Germany hit a road block.
The United States and Great Britain joined their sectors together, but France refused to join together, mainly because they wanted to maintain their control over Germany's production centers.
Eventually these issues would be smoothed over and the French zone was rejoined with the U.S. and British zones.
The Soviets. on the other hand, refused to join their sectors with the others and by 1949 two separate Germanys came into existence.
West Germany - The Federal Republic of Germany- was a free country with strong ties to the west, i.e. The U.S., U.K.
East Germany - German Democratic Republic- was a communist controlled state with strong ties to the U.S.S.R. Berlin was similarly divided.
By 1949 the Cold War had officially begun as we feared that the Soviets would continue to spread communism around the world.
Our fears were, in fact, well founded because communism moved into China in 1949.
What's the Big Deal about Communism?
Why Didn't Americans Like Communism ?
Uncle Joe
Born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jugashvili in Gorki, Georgia on December 18th, 1878 (according to the Julian calendar.)
He changed his name to Josef Stalin.
After Lenin's death, Stalin emerged as the new leader of the Soviet Union following a power struggle with other high ranking party members.
He created a "cult of personality" around both Lenin and himself giving them both status as almost god-like figures and fathers of the Soviet Union. This enabled him to gain absolute power.
Eastern Bloc, the Iron Curtain an NATO
"The Iron Curtain" is a term used to describe the political and ideological separation between the western democracies and eastern communist countries.
After Germany was split in twain in 1949, the western countries joined together in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a new military alliance aimed at stopping the spread of communism.
In response, the Soviets created the Warsaw Pact which set up an alliance of Soviet controlled countries which became known as the Eastern Bloc.
Looks Like Another Russian Winter
BDR
DDR
Find out by reading pages 480 & 481 in your text (remember those green books on the shelves?)
As you read, copy definitions into your Cold War notes.
Answer the Reading Check Question.
Copy the Communism Chart
Answer the question in the Communism Chart as well.

Ukraine Clips
http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/ukraine-crisis/russias-control-crimea-raises-international-tensions-n42196

http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/ukraine-crisis/will-russia-continue-advance-ukraine-n42686

http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/ukraine-crisis/cold-war-fears-loom-over-ukraine-crisis-n42691
http://www.nbcnews.com/nightly-news/see-joseph-stalins-sochi-n36391
Beginning in the 1930s, Stalin began a reign of terror known as the Great Purge.
During the Purges, Stalin had anyone who threatened his power or disagreed with him killed or exiled to Siberia to work in Gulag prison camps (where they soon died anyway)
He had history books rewritten, documents altered, and photographs doctored to remove his "enemy's" existence from Soviet history.
Due to famines during the his reign, about 6 million Russians died because of the botched collectivization efforts took food away from those who needed it most.
It is estimated that between famines and executions, 10 million citizens of the Soviet Union died as a direct result of Stalin's regime.
Stalin eventually died in 1953 as a result of a stroke.
He was also embalmed and had himself placed next to Lenin for public display.
However, a few years later new leader Nikita Krushchev began to reveal to government officials the atrocities that Stalin had committed during his reign.
In 1961, the government quietly removed Stalin's body from his place of honor next to Lenin and buried it 300 meters away with lesser Communist Party members.
In 2010, his hometown of Gori finally tore down a statue of his likeness
Another Brick in the Wall

The Berlin Wall of Videos
Directions: Watch the following clips and create a timeline in the Cold War section of your notebooks identifying the major dates in the history of the Berlin Wall. When you have watched all of the clips, answer the questions at the bottom of this circle in your notebooks.
Questions: Answer the following questions in your notebook. Be sure to restate in your answer.

1.) Why was the Berlin Wall built?

2.) In addition to the wall itself, what else prevented people from leaving East Germany?

3.) In what ways was the Berlin Wall a symbol of the Cold War?

4.) Who was Mr. Gorbachev?

5.) Why was the Berlin Wall coming down so important (relate it back to question #3)?
Help!
Pmeister's
in the Drink!
Better go
around.
The Berlin Wall of Facts
Here's a look at some miscellaneous facts Berlin Wall, seen as a symbol of the Cold War and East/West relations. The Wall stood from 1961 to 1989, separating democratic West Berlin, in West Germany, from Communist-controlled East Berlin and from the rest of East Germany. At the end you will find a timeline, double check your timeline and add dates if necessary.
The Wall:
The Berlin Wall evolved from a temporary border of barbed wire fencing to a heavily fortified, concrete barrier with numerous guards, tank traps, and other obstacles.
It encircled the city of West Berlin and stretched approximately 100 miles.
The wall between East and West Berlin was 11-13 feet high and stretched 28 miles.
Buildings behind the barriers were demolished, and the wide open area became known as "no man's land" or the "death strip," where guards in more than 300 sentry towers could shoot anyone trying to escape.
Wires and mines were buried underneath the surface to prevent escape attempts; pipes on top of the wall prevented it from being scaled.
Over 100,000 people attempt to escape over the wall. Between 5,000 and 10,000 succeeded.
Approximately 200 people were killed while trying to escape; many of them were shot by guards or had a fatal accident.
The most famous border crossing was known as Checkpoint Charlie.
Sections of the wall may be viewed at NATO Headquarters in Belgium, midtown Manhattan, and the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.

Timeline:
February 1945 - In the waning days of World War II, the Allies' Yalta Conference divides Germany into four zones of occupation: Great Britain, France and the U.S. occupy the western and southern half, and the Soviet Union occupies the eastern half. Berlin, located in Soviet territory, is also divided into zones.
1949 - The western and southern zones occupied by Britain, France, and the U.S. become West Germany (The Federal Republic of Germany). The Soviet zone becomes the German Democratic Republic (GDR), or East Germany. West Germany is a democratic republic. East Germany is a Communist country aligned with the Soviet Union.
1949-1961 - More than two million East Germans escape to the West. Foreign citizens, West Germans, West Berliners, and Allied military personnel are allowed to enter East Berlin, but East Berliners need a special pass to leave.
August 12, 1961 - East German Communist Party leader Walter Ulbricht signs the order for a barricade separating East and West Berlin.
August 13, 1961 - East German security forces chief Erich Honecker orders police and troops to erect a barbed wire fence.
August 15, 1961 - The first concrete barrier is built.
August 18, 1961 - U.S. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson and General Lucius D. Clay fly to Berlin as a show of U.S. support for West Germany.
August 21, 1961 - Approximately 1,500 U.S. troops arrive in West Berlin.
August 23, 1961 - West Berliners without permits are banned from entering East Berlin.
June 26, 1963 - President John F. Kennedy speaks to an enthusiastic crowd at West Berlin's old Schoeneberg Rathaus (city hall), "Today in the world of freedom the proudest boast is 'Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner) all free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin. And therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words 'Ich bin ein Berliner'."

Ten More Facts About The Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall was a wall separating the Eastern side of Berlin from the Western side. It was a symbol of The Cold War until it fell in 1989. Here are ten facts about the Berlin Wall.
Berlin Wall
Fact One
Construction of the Berlin Wall began on August 13 1961 as a way of separating the three zones controlled by France, Britain and America from the zone controlled by the Soviet Union.

After World War Two, Germany was split into four zones, each occupied by one of the four Allied powers that defeated the Nazis. The zones controlled by France, Great Britain and America became West Germany, or Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Federal Republic of Germany). The Soviet-controlled zone became East Germany, or Deutsche Demokratische Republik (Germany Democratic Republic). Germany's capital, Berlin, was situated in Soviet-controlled East Germany , but as this city was the administrative area for the Allied forces, it too was split into four. This meant that France, Great Britain and America controlled West Berlin, whereas the Soviet Union controlled the East. Relations between America and the Soviet Union soured considerably during much of the second half of the Twentieth Century. The Berlin Wall was a symbol of this hostility, a physical representation of what was called the Iron Curtain.

Fact Two
The Berlin Wall was constructed as a way of preventing East Berliners from entering West Berlin. It was not so much a boundary for West Berliners wanting to enter the East, who were able to do so by obtaining a permit several weeks in advance. It didn't face much opposition by the western powers as its construction confirmed that the Soviet Union were not planning to take over West Berlin.

Fact Three
Official figures show that at least 136 people died trying to cross the border. People attempting to get from East to West were regarded as traitors and guards were instructed to shoot at them if they attempted to cross, although not to kill them.

Fact Four
The west side of the Berlin wall was covered in graffiti. The East side was not.

Fact Five
The Berlin Wall was something of a propaganda disaster for the Soviet Union and East Germany. It showed the communists to be tyrannical in the way they controlled the movement of their people and their willingness to shoot at people they considered to be traitors.


Fact Six
West Berliners used the Berlin Wall as an ideal way of getting rid of rubbish. If they had anything that needed throwing away, they threw it over the wall. After all, it wasn't as if they would be made to go over it to fetch it back.

Fact Seven
You will find out about this tomorrow. (Don’t you just hate cliffhangers?)


Fact Eight
Despite there being a wall separating East from West, there were a number of checkpoints that allowed passage to and from the two sides. The most famous of these was Checkpoint Charlie, a checkpoint separating the American-controlled zone of West Berlin from the Soviet-controlled East Berlin. The guard house for Checkpoint Charlie was removed in October 1990 and is now situated in the Allied Museum in Berlin-Zehlendorf. The last remnant of Checkpoint Charlie, an East German watchtower, was demolished in 2000.

Fact Nine
Although November 9th 1989 is recognized as the date of the fall of the Berlin Wall, official demolition of it didn't start until June 13th 1990. Between November 9th and June 13th, border controls still existed, although were less strict that previously. Parts of the wall was chipped away by Germans to keep as souvenirs/sell on eBay. People who did this were known as "wall woodpeckers" (Mauerspechte) Some parts of the wall had been taken down but only to make way for more crossing points. All border controls ended on July 1st 1990 and Germany was recognized as one country again from October 3rd 1990.

Fact Ten
The Berlin Wall was a physical barrier above the ground, but what about under the ground? Berlin, like many major cities, has an underground or subway system. After construction of the Berlin Wall, trains could only operate on the side in which they were based. Some trains either ran purely on the west side or the east side. Trains which previously crossed the border would now go no further than its respective border and then turn back. This was apart from three lines that were used by West Berliners but which went through East Berlin for a small part of their journeys. They travelled through several stations which became known as Ghost Stations (Geisterbahnh�fe), dimly lit and heavily-guarded stations that the trains were unable to stop at. This was apart from certain exceptions: Friedrichstasse Station was situated in East Berlin, but was used a transfer station for passengers to get onto other trains travelling to locations in West Berlin. Passengers could also enter East Berlin at this station if they had the relevant permits (also needed for crossing the Berlin Wall). Bornholmer Strasse Station was a station that both West and East Berlin trains passed through, but not on the same lines. Neither side's trains stopped at the station, and the two lines through it were separated by a tall fence. Finally, Wallankstrasse Station was another station situated right on the border. There were exits in the station, some leading the West Berlin, some leading to East Berlin. The exits to West Berlin were open and allowed people to pass through it freely. The exits to streets in East Berlin were locked. When the Ghost Stations were reopened after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the first people using them found them preserved as they were when they closed in 1961 with the same signage and advertisements on the walls.

September 1971 - An agreement is reached allowing West Berlin and East Berlin to import and export goods.
December 1972 - West and East Germany sign a treaty normalizing diplomatic relations and recognizing each other's sovereignty.
June 12, 1987 - In a speech at the Brandenburg Gate, U.S. President Ronald Reagan challenges Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!"
April 3, 1989 - Border guards are instructed to stop "using firearms to prevent border violations."
October 18, 1989 - Communist Party chief Erich Honecker is ousted and is replaced by Egon Krenz.
November 1, 1989 - More than half million people participate in a pro-freedom rally in East Berlin, demanding free elections.
November 2, 1989 - Egon Krenz announces sweeping political and economic reforms.
November 6, 1989 - A preliminary law is passed that gives all citizens travel and emigration rights.
November 7, 1989 - The East German cabinet resigns. Almost half of the members of the Politburo are removed and replaced the next day.
November 9, 1989 - East Germany lifts travel restrictions to the West. Politburo member Guenter Schabowski announces that East German citizens can "leave the country through East German border crossing points," effective immediately.
November 9-10, 1989 - Jubilant crowds tear down the wall piece by piece.
November 10, 1989 - Several new crossing points are opened, and tens of thousands of people cross over into West Berlin.
October 3, 1990 - East and West Germany are officially reunited under the name the Federal Republic of Germany.
Communism in China
China had been ruled by various dynasties since 1500 B.C.
The Qing dynasty was the last dynasty and was seen as being weak after a series of military defeats.
In 1911 and 1912 revolution swept through the country and the Qing dynasty was removed from power.
After 30 years of upheaval and in fighting for power (not to mention being invaded by the Japanese during WWII) two different groups rose to the top in the fight for control of China.
The Nationalists- were the group that technically controlled China, they held most of the cities.
They sought to create a modernized country with a democracy in China through a three step process: military rule, political education, and finally constitutional rule.
Emphasized Chinese Nationalism and was willing to accept SOME western ways, but not all.
Initially led by Sun Yet-sen, and later by Chiang Kai-shek.
The Communists- they had a lot of power in the countryside and were the Nationalists main rival.
Led by Mao Zedong, the son of a wealthy farmer who learned about Communism while at a University in Beijing.
Sought to set up a Communist government.
Rejected the ideas and ways of the Western world.
1949 the Communists won the long civil war.
China was now a communist country, like their neighbor to the north Mongolia, which became communist in 1921.
The Nationalists fled to Taiwan and set up a rival government there.
China doesn't recognize Taiwan and considers it part of their territory, even today, despite the fact that many countries around the world do recognize it.
Warm Up: If the Soviet Union, the world's first and largest Communist country failed in 1991, how is it that China lives, thrives and survives as a Communist nation?
Under Mao Zedong, China became a command economy.
Only a small number of Communist Party leaders were in control.
The government took land, livestock and businesses away from their owners.
Mongolian Fun Fact: When the government tried to take the livestock away from the herders, they decided to kill the animals rather than turn them over. Grisly, huh?
The government started programs to help people too, such as sending doctors to remote villages to give basic medical care.
China's command economy often failed to provide for it's people.
In 1958 Mao introduced what he called the Great Leap Forward.
This policy called for the country to industrialize by increasing it's steel production.
Making steel took farmers away from their fields.
This, along with poor weather conditions caused a famine.
As many as 30 million Chinese people died of hunger between 1958-1962.
Leaders that took over after Mao's death in 1976 started to move China toward a market economy.
Despite the fact that the government loosened economic restrictions and allow privately owned businesses, the Communist party maintained power and strict control over it's people.
Mongolian Fun Fact Redux: Mongolia became a democracy and a market economy in the 1990s. However, the Communist party still exists and has actually won elections. Cool, huh?
To this day China's leaders have not made significant political changes.
China is still a single party state, which means that it is a country that is controlled by one political party.
While the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) still controls the government, they do not control the economy.
The government is very restrictive:
China doesn't have freedom of the press.
The government blocks many web sites.
The government imprisons those that speak out against or do things that oppose the government.
Since 1979 they have instituted a "one-child policy" to help control the population growth due to concerns over running out of resources.
Exemptions to "One Child Policy":
Rural families may have more than one child if the first one is a girl or disabled.
If neither parent has a sibling they may have two children.
If you lived in Hong Kong or Macau you were exempt.
In November of 2013, the government further relaxed restrictions so that you may have two children if one of the parents is an only child.
Violators of the policy face hefty fines.
Demographers estimate that as many as 200 million births may have been prevented since 1979 due to this policy.
In January of 2016 this policy was further relaxed and amended to be a Two Child Policy, that's a 100% increase!
In 1989, tens of thousands people gathered in Tiananmen Square in Beijing to protest the government.
They called for more freedoms and political changes.
They refused to leave the square and China's leaders sent in tanks and troops to make them leave.
Thousands were killed or wounded and the government has not changed.
Statue of Young Mao in the Hunan Providence
The government that Chiang Kai-shek set up in Taiwan was also a Single Party State.
The Nationalists controlled the government until 1989 when they allowed free elections amid protests.
Today, Taiwan is Democracy with a market economy.
They are also a leading producer of high end electronics today and out produces China on a per person basis.
Tertiary Mongolian Fun Fact : Mongolian's historic "Three Manly Skills" are wrestling, horsemanship and archery. Genghis Khan considered wrestling to be an important way to keep his army in good physical shape and combat ready, the other two are pretty self explanatory as to their importance.
China Today
China is the most populated country in the world with a population of 1,400,304,989 people.
China has also become an international economic power.
China has an HDI of .719 and is 91st in the world, however, Hong Kong .891 and is tied for 15th in the world with South Korea. Macau is .882 and are tied with Tiawan.
Eastern China has seen the greatest benefit from being a market economy and life there is considerably better than in Western China.
China faces many environmental problems as a result of their rapid industrialization and development.
China is a member of the United Nation Security Council along with the U.S., U.K., France, and Russia.
Our relationship with China is a complicated one, they have loaned us money to bail out government institutions, we are their largest trading partner behind the EU, many US businesses make money off of China (KFC is their top fast food restaurant and Pizza Hut is a fancy restaurant), yet we often find ourselves on different sides of political issues such Syria, North Korea, and Crimea.
Last Minute Mongolian Fun Fact: Mongolia has an HDI of .698 and is 103rd in the world and on the rise!
Cold War & Korea
The Germany of the East
During WWII, all of Korea was controlled by Japan.
With Japan's defeat, the Koreas become occupied by the US in the South, and by the Soviets in the North.
Like with Germany, both sides disagreed about how to unite the separate parts.
In the North, a communist government developed, while a democratic government arose in the South. Both of these governments claimed to rule over the entire peninsula.
The Forgotten War
In 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea, marking the beginning of the Korean War. Hoping to limit the spread of communism, the US led United Nations troops to defend the South. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union and China aided North Korea.
After 3 years of fighting, neither side won. A border was drawn up between the two countries along the 38th Parallel, which was declared a demilitarized zone (a place where neither army are allowed to enter).
Though the fighting ended with a truce, an actual peace treaty was never signed. Technically, the Korean War has never ended and is just on hold.
Life in South Korea
South Korea began in 1948 as a democracy with a
limited government
(a government with powers that are limited by law).
However, the constitution said that the leaders did not have to follow those limits if the country faced serious problems.
As a result, the political system was not always democractic. More than once, the military took over the country, and freedoms of speech and the press were not always protected.
In 1987, South Koreans began to protest and call for change. The government changed the constitution to safeguard more freedoms. As a result, the military has become less powerful and have not taken over the government since.
After the Korean War, the leaders of South Korea focused on producing industrial goods for export. The government supported many large businesses by helping them get money and equipment. The education system was also greatly improved.
These policies have led to South Korea becoming an economic powerhouse. Today, South Korea is a developed country with the 15th highest HDI in the world.
People in South Korea mostly live in cities. Due to increased contacts with other countries, cultural diffusion has led to changes in South Korean culture. Many western sports, like baseball and basketball, have huge followings, and Christianity, introduced following the Korean War, is now practiced by one quarter of the population.
North Korea today is one of the most isolated countries in the world and has been run as a Communist dictatorship by the Kim family since it's creation.
Kim Il-sung rose to power in the Communist party in 1948 and ruled the country from the end of the Korean War until his death in 1994.
Kim Jong-il, Kim Il-sung's son, took over after his father's death and ruled until his death in 2011.
Under Kim Jong-il, some progress was made towards easing tensions with the south.
Today, North Korea is ruled by Kim Jong-un, Kim Jong-il's son.
North Korea has a very restrictive government:
it controls the newspapers, radio, and television.
it limits information from the outside world.
it limits cell phones and internet access.
it controls cultural and religious life. People cannot worship freely.
it funds museums and the arts, yet it controls what is produced and bans all art that goes against the government.
People are not free to speak out against the government and those that do are severely punished.
The North Koreans have imprisoned 200,000 people for their political actions.
http://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/north-korea-dismisses-u-n-report-holds-birthday-party-n32576
North Korea's economy has stagnated as they do not trade with most of the world.
The leadership has focused on building the military and military service is mandatory.
They do not spend enough money on updating machines on farms or in factories.
Food production has suffered due to shortages of tractors, fertilizer, and fuel.
They have also suffered droughts and floods.
In the late 1990s more than 2 million people died as a result of starvation despite foreign aid given by other country's.
The government has focused too much on its military, developing nuclear technology and keeping control rather than solving their economic problems.
North Korea has an HDI of ????? Guess why. (The most current data is from 2008 and claims they have an HDI of .733.
There is hope that the Koreas may reunite one day.
South Korea has given aid to North Korea.
They even opened an industrial park in North Korea run by South Korean businessmen.
North Korea continues to find itself at odds with most of the western world because of their continued efforts to develop and launch nuclear weapons.
Since Kim Jung-un has taken over, relations with the west have deteriorated and reports of human rights violations and executions have increased.
The U.S. doesn't have political relations with North Korea, but is a strong ally of South Korea, and North Korea has made threats against the U.S. in the past.
While the situation is usually calm between the Koreas, tension flares up every so often, usually when either side preforms military maneuvers.
Warm Up: Why do you think communism still
exists in North Korea?
Cool Down: In what ways is the situation in the Koreas reminiscent of the Cold War as a whole?

Communism
in
Southeast Asia
and You
Warm Up:
During the Cold War, the U.S. had a theory about the spread of Communism, referred to as the "Domino Theory" after a speech that President Eisenhower gave in 1954.
Explain what you think the "Domino Theory" means in regards to the spread of Communism.
The Domino Theory
The Domino Theory was the idea that if one country fell to communism then the neighboring countries would soon fall too. This idea was applied primarily to Asia and the belief that when China became communist, the rest of Asia would soon follow.
Nov. 14th, 1950
By 1887 the French had colonized modern day Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The called this colony French Indochina.
They set up plantations, reformed education and spread Catholicism.
The French largely ignored any attempts by the people of the colony to break free and overthrow their rule.
During World War II, the Japanese occupied Indochina and exploited it for its natural resources.
After the war, the land was returned to the French, but the people of Vietnam continued to revolt led by Ho Chi Minh.
Ho Chi Minh
While traveling the world as a young man, Ho Chi Minh visited the U.S.S.R.
While in Moscow, he learned about Communism, which he brought back to his homeland.
Starting in 1941 he began an independence movement to drive the French out of Vietnam.
in 1945 he established the communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam, which eventually drove the French out in 1954.
The Vietnam War
After the French were driven from Vietnam, the country was temporarily divided at the 17th parallel.
Much like Korea, the North was controlled by the Communists and the South by people seeking a Republic.
The U.S. offered financial aide to help relocate people to the south.
The U.S. had a plan to reunify Vietnam after a free election overseen by the U.N., the U.S. even agreed to accept it as a communist country if that is what the people wanted.
The Soviets however did not agree to this idea and Vietnam remained divided .
Though the two Vietnams existed in relative peace for many years, there were disruptions in the south by groups loyal to the Communist North.
In 1959 North Vietnamese troops invaded Laos and built roads through the country to invade Vietnam and by 1961 they were also in Cambodia.
Over the next 4 years the communists continued to infiltrate the south.
While we had advisers in South Vietnam for years, in1963 the first US troops arrived.
By the end of the war the US would have committed more than 536,100 troops to the war.
The U.S. fought in Vietnam for more than 12 years.
Soldiers were unprepared for the type of warfare they encountered and the conditions in Southeast Asia.
The fighting that took place in Vietnam included new weapons such as Napalm and even chemical weapons such as Agent Orange.
The Vietnam war was also heavily protested in America and numerous protest movements and songs came out of the 60s.
The U.S. removed all of their troops in 1975 and evacuated as many of those that were loyal to the US as possible.
Over 58,000 U.S. troops were killed and another 303, 644 were wounded.
Total military casualties from both sides 1.475 million
Total wounded from both sides 2.094 million
Total civilian casualties from both sides 4 million
Total number of KIA’s soldiers who were less than 20 years old 11,465
Outcomes
The Vietnam War saw tremendous casualties on all sides.
The U.S. technically never surrendered and therefore never lost the war, however the Vietnamese count it as a victory.
Today Vietnam is still a communist country with a mixed economy, which means they take different aspects of both a command and a market economy.
It is possible for US citizens to visit Vietnam today.
Cambodia became communist in 1975 but became a Constitutional Monarchy in 1991.
Laos became communist in 1975 and remain communist to this day.
Why doesn't the "western world" like communism?
Warm Up
1. Take a sheet from the cart.

2. As you listen to the song, analyze the lyrics to develop your thoughts about what you think a "cult of personality' is about.

3. Also highlight or underline lines in the lyrics you can use as support for your conclusions.


Cult of Personality
Arises when an individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods to create an idealized, heroic, and at times worshipful image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
Warm Up
1. Take a few moments to study for your Map Quiz.

2. Remember, the quiz is on the area that made up the former:

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Extra Credit
Related: Which country that ends in S.T.A.N. has a capital named Tashkent?
Assignment
1. Pages 482-483
a. Read, not skim, both pages.
b. Explain Gorbachev's policies of Glasnost and Perestroika.
c. How do you think these new policies led to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991?



2. Pages 757 (The End of Dynasties) - 759
a. Who led a communist revolution in China?
b. Think back to the USSR under Stalin. What similarities do you see with what happened in both countries?
c. How did China change after Deng Xaioping took power?
Random: On this date in history not related to St. Patrick's Day, Bobby Jones was born in 1902. Bobby Jones is famous for achieving the first grand slam in what sport?
Quiz Time
Proxy War
A proxy war is a conflict between 2 nations where neither country directly engages the other. However, the 2 nations use other means and other combatants to thwart the interests of the other.
Korea Reading
Read 786 "Japan and the Koreas since WWII"
1. Answer Question 6 on page 787


Read 790-791
1. Answer the Reading Check on page 791
2. Answer questions 3, 4 & 7 on page 795
Vietnam Reading
1. Read 812-813
a. Answer Reading Checks
b. Answer Questions 3, 4, & 6
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