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# Fluid Mechanics Group 1B 2015

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## Matilda Marriott

on 26 October 2015

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#### Transcript of Fluid Mechanics Group 1B 2015

For example:
A person weighing 60kg is running at 3m/s, what is their kinetic energy?
Kinetic Energy=1/2 × 60kg × (3m/s)^2
Kinetic Energy = 1/2 × m × v^2
Kinetic Energy = 270J or 0.27kJ
This same process can be used on single molecules in a fluid, which is why it is important to understand Kinetic Energy in Fluid Mechanics

and apply what
we have learned !

What is Fluid Mechanics?
Fluid Mechanics is used in.....
Fluid Statics
Fluid Dynamics
Fluid Statics can be determine by:
Fluid Force
compressibility of fluid
pressure measurement
What is a Fluid
?
Fluids are matter that does
not have a fixed shape.
They can be liquid or gas
Fluid Mechanics is divided into two areas
Energy
Continuity
Bernouilli's Equation
Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy
Pressure Energy
R
E
A
L
application
Let's see the
Oops..
Why it is red?
its FIRE! FIRE!
We need a fire hose and fire hydrant to put off the fire!
Here's the
situation..
There is fire in a building. A fire fighter pulls out the hose with a radius of 0.04m which connected to the fire hydrant. A 4 ms-1 speed of water exist from the underground pipe with radius 0.10 m, enters through the hydrant.

We already been GIVEN the :

i) area of pipe (A1) and hose (A2)
ii)pipe velocity (V1)

V1,A1
V2,A2
So, what is..
V2 ??
TRANSPORTATIONS
INDUSTRY
Daily life
<http://images.nationalgeographic.com/wpf/media-live/photos/000/036/cache/alfalfa-field-mclain_3679_990x742.jpg>
<http://www.deutrel.com/images/left-pic-sewage-plant2.jpg>
<http://leis.heimat.eu/reisen/05itaipu.jpg>
<http://www.mcucoatings.com/images/chemical-plants-big.jpg>
<https://cdn-images.xda-developers.com/direct/1/0/0/9/3/6/3/75234-bigthumbnail.jpg>
<http://resources2.news.com.au/images/2011/03/02/1226014/977094-shower.jpg>
<http://www.comparison.com.au/system/image_library/30325/changhong_cha35gwn_air_conditioner.jpg>
Introduction to
Fluid
Mechanics

AND..
References
In order to understand basic fluid mechanics, we need to know about energy
There are three types of energy we consider in fluid mechanics:
Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy
Pressure Energy
The energy possessed by a body in motion.
The Kinetic Energy of an object is determined by:
the mass of the object
how fast the object is moving
Kinetic Energy is given by the equation:
The unit of energy is in Joules (J) or Kilojoules (kJ)
http://images.tutorvista.com/cms/formulaimages/83/potential-energy-formulas-image.PNG
Pressure is defined as the measure of force per unit area.
Airplane
Panama canal
Hot air balloons
Irrigation system
Hydroelectricity plant
Chemical processing plant
Jet engine
Shower faucet
Drinking fountain
Air-conditioner
The energy due to the Potential for Kinetic Energy
For example, if we had a gas in a container and decreased the volume of the container, the pressure inside the container would increase, as the gas would be exerting the same force on the sides of the container but there is less surface for that force to act on.
The car in the picture above has potential energy when it is on top of the hill.
This is because it has the potential to gain Kinetic Energy when it goes down the hill again.
Potential energy is calculated using an objects mass, its height above the ground and the acceleration due to gravity.
m = mass (kg)
g = gravity 9.81m/s^2
h = height m
In Fluids.....
The fluid in the higher tank has greater potential energy than the fluid in the bottom tank.
This is due to the height of the fluid being greater, increasing Potential Energy.
We can also see that gravity is causing the fluid to flow down; thus gaining Kinetic Energy.
F = Force in N
A = Area in m^2
Bernoulli's equation can be applied to various types of flows and takes different forms when considering different flows. Applications in real life situations include calculating lift force on an airfoil and calculating flow speed of a fluid.
The equation is named after Daniel Bernoulli. Bernoulli's principle states if a fluid which is non-conducting and inviscid undergoes an increase in speed, a decrease in pressure or potential energy will occur simultaneously.
v = fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline,
g = acceleration due to gravity
z = elevation of the point above a reference
p = pressure at the chosen point
rho = is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid
The above equation is in its most simple form which is applied to incompressible flows.
Q = flow rate
v = velocity
A = Area
This equation is obtained due to mass always being conserved in fluid systems notwithstanding the direction in which the fluid flows.
Common situations where this equation can be utilized include pipes, ducts, rivers, roads and even computer networks.
high PE
low PE
Pressure in Fluids
Fluids have no fixed shape, so pressure acts in all directions.
It is applied to itself and on the surface of the container.
http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/fluid_pressure.htm#.Vh7NaBArKL8
The Energy due to the Force a Fluid exerts on itself and its container.
2 types of fluid force:
surface force
body force

Incompressible fluid has fixed density
studies the effect of all pressures including the external pressures on the moving fluid
Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engg., 2005,
Fluid statics
, viewed 16 October 2015.
<http://www-mdp.eng.cam.ac.uk/web/library/enginfo/aerothermal_dvd_only/aero/fprops/statics/node2.html>
Ways to measure the pressure
by using:
Mercury barometer,
Piezometer tube,
Differential U-tube manometer
Fluid dynamics, n.d., AP Physics B, viewed 16th October 2015.
Fluid's motion can be said laminar
HOSE PRESSURE!!
Differential U-tube
manometer
Piezometer tube
Compressible fluid has distinct property changes.

For example:
Air.
The pressure depends on temperature and altitude, an equation is based on
Hope it helps
THANKS FOR WATCHING
V2 =23.86 ms-1
By using Continuity Equation:
Cambridge University 2003/2004, JYA PHYSICS:
Pressure Notes,
viewed 10 October 2015, http://jamesdewinter.com/JYA/Pages/Term2/PressureQuestions.htm
Ron. K 2015,
Pressure in Fluids
, viewed 5 October 2015, http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/fluid_pressure.htm#.ViC7x34rLIV.
The study of non-moving flow.

Fluid is at REST
The study of moving fluids

Fluid is in MOTION
laminar flow
Science clarified, Fluid Mechanics:
Real-life applications
, viewed 7 October 2015, http://www.scienceclarified.com/everyday/Real-Life-Chemistry-Vol-3-Physics-Vol-1/Fluid-Mechanics-Real-life-applications.html
water treat
What is Fluid Mechanics? 2015.. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mne.psu.edu/cimbala/Learning/Fluid/Introductory/what_is_fluid_mechanics.htm. [Accessed 21 October 2015].
Fluid Mechanics is the study of the force and motion that applies to fluids.
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