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To Kill A Mockingbird Presentation (Ch. 18-19)
Transcript of To Kill A Mockingbird Presentation (Ch. 18-19)
History Will Always Repeat Itself
Which of Tom Robinson’s arms is crippled?
Elizabeth/ Audrey- His left arm.
What is the name of Bob Ewell’s daughter?
Elizabeth/ Audrey- Mayella Violet Ewell.
How old is Mayella Ewell?
Elizabeth/ Audrey- She is nineteen-and-a-half.
Why is Mayella so afraid of Atticus?
Elizabeth- Mayella is so afraid of Atticus because the way he asks her questions seems so intimidating. She knows that if she makes a slight mistake, that he would catch it, and use it against her.
Audrey- She is afraid of Atticus because she fears that her actions will be revealed because of Atticus' 'manipulative' questioning.
Why does Mayella continuously hesitate to answer the questions she is being asked?
Elizabeth- Mayella continues to hesitate to answer the questions being asked because she has to think about her answers. She has to make the court believe her lie, so she thinks before speaking, to prevent any slips.
Audrey- She hesitates because she constantly thinks about the answer so that she doesn't reveal the truth, as well as making up a story as she goes along.
In what ways did Tom Robinson show manners toward Mayella Ewell?
Elizabeth- Tom Robinson shows manners to Mayella by obeying her multiple favors. He does what she asks without questioning her.
Audrey- Tom Robinson shows manners towards Mayella by helping her when in need. He also does not accept her money, knowing they have very little to support themselves.
Could Tom Robinson have struck the right side of Mayella’s face, despite the fact that his left arm is crippled?
Elizabeth- It is highly unlikely that Robinson could have struck Mayella's right side of her face with his crippled left hand. He could not even raise his left hand properly to say the oath, so striking Mayella could not be possible with his left hand. He could have hit her with his right hand, but that would have beat the left side of her face, not the right.
Audrey- He could have, however it would be very unlikely and hard to hit her right side.
Should it be wrong for a colored man to feel sorry for a white man?
Elizabeth- It should not be wrong. Although at that time whites were seen as superior to blacks, both are still humans, and humans have the right to have feelings for one another.
Audrey- According to this time period, yes, however personally I believe that it shouldn't be wrong because 'every man is created equal'.
Do you feel sympathy for Mayella, even after knowing the true story?
Elizabeth- I feel some sympathy toward Mayella. She is trapped in a lonely, painful life, and all she wanted was a companion.
Audrey- Yes I do feel sympathy for Mayella because not only does she have to take care of everything by herself, she is also abused by her father. In addition, she must choose between revealing the truth and stopping her fathers abuse, or keeping her actions a secret and remain victim towards her father.
Saturday, August 17, 1935
Vol XCIII, No. 311
EWELLS ACCUSE NEGRO OF RAPE
THE MAYCOMB TRIBUNE
Leading you in, literally.
In the name of God, believe him.
Won't answer a word you say long as you
keep on mockin' me.
Do you really know Mayella Ewell?
Page: 187 Paragraph: 14
“Do you remember him beating you about the face?" The witness hesitated.“You seem sure enough that he choked you. All this time you were fighting back, remember? You ‘kicked and hollered as loud as you could.’ Do you remember him beating you about the face?”Mayella was silent. She seemed to be trying to get something clear to herself. “It’s an easy question, Miss Mayella, so I’ll try again. Do you remember him beating you about the face?”. “Do you remember him beating you about the face?” “No, I don’t recollect if he hit me. I mean yes I do, he hit me.” “Was your last sentence your answer?” “Huh? Yes, he hit—I just don’t remember, I just don’t remember… it all happened so quick.”
Mayella answers Atticus’ questions without certainty. She stutters and even changes her answers throughout her trial. She does not reply to some of Atticus’ specific questions and goes off topic. Her stuttering and hesitation demonstrates her indecisive character, as she cannot decide on how or what to answer. Had she told the truth to the court, Mayella would have no reason to over-think her answers, to make sure the lie would not be revealed.
On the night of February 26, 2012, in Sanford, Florida, 17 year old Trayvon Martin was killed by 28 year old, George Zimmerman. Zimmerman, who was volunteering in part of the neighborhood watch, claimed to have spotted Martin walking home late at night and approached him in suspicion. He claimed that Martin had pounced on him, so he took out his gun and shot Martin right in the chest out of self defense. With no physical footage and no witnesses, Zimmerman was found not guilty of the murder. However many people believe that Zimmerman did not shoot only out of self defense as stated, "’the defendant didn't shoot Trayvon Martin because he had to," Assistant State Attorney John Guy said, "he shot him because he wanted to. That's the bottom line". This connects to
To Kill A Mockingbird
, by Harper Lee, because it shows the discrimination of African Americans. Tom Robinson was found guilty although he had been proven innocent, just because Mr. Ewell, a white man was against him. Although it was obvious that Mr. Ewell had abused Mayella, and not Tom Robinson, the court had supported the white man's side. In the case of Martin's murder, the court had pronounced Zimmerman innocent even though not enough evidence had been found. However, discrimination is shown when Zimmerman felt suspicion towards Martin because of his race. He only stepped out of his car to confront Martin because he "looked" suspicion.
This reveals the theme about discrimination of blacks and ultimately people who are "different".
Page: 184 Paragraph: 4
“She was looking at him furiously. “Won’t answer a word you say long as you keep on mockin‘ me,” she said. “Ma’am?” asked Atticus, startled. “Long’s you keep on makin‘ fun o’me.” Mayella looked from under lowered eyelids at Atticus, but she said to the judge, “Long’s he keeps on callin‘ me ma’am an sayin’ Miss Mayella. I don’t hafta take his sass, I ain’t called upon to take it.”
During Mayella’s questioning during the case, Atticus addresses her as “ma'am” to show respect. But, since she is not used to being spoken to so politely, she automatically assumes he is mocking her. Mayella stays at home most of the time and does not have any true friends. Therefore, she is socially awkward and becomes furious when she does not know how to react in unfamiliar situations. Her instinctive anger when Atticus tries to speak to her politely shows her sensitive, emotional character which stems from her inexperience with other humans.
Page: 194 Paragraph: 12
“As Tom Robinson gave his testimony, it came to me that Mayella Ewell must have been the loneliest person in the world. She was even lonelier than Boo Radley, who had not been out of the house in twenty-five years. When Atticus asked had she any friends, she seemed not to know what he meant, then she thought he was making fun of her. She was as sad, I thought, as what Jem called a mixed child: white people wouldn’t have anything to do with her because she lived among pigs; Negroes wouldn’t have anything to do with her because she was white. She couldn’t live like Mr. Dolphus Raymond, who preferred the company of Negroes, because she didn’t own a riverbank and she wasn’t from a fine old family. Nobody said, “That’s just their way,” about the Ewells. Maycomb gave them Christmas baskets, welfare money, and the back of its hand.”
Scout compares how lonely Mayella is to other outcasts in Maycomb County, Boo Radley, the mixed children, Mr. Dolphus Raymond, and the Africans. Scout's comparison of Mayella to other similar outcasts emphasizes how lonely and sad she really is. These recluses are already secluded enough, but Mayella is described as even more isolated because she does not have anyone else to relate to due to her situation.
Page: 242 Paragraph: 2
After Mayella concluded her story at court, Scout noticed that “Mayella’s recital had given her confidence, but it was not her father’s brash kind: there was something stealthy about hers, like a steady-eyed cat with a twitchy tail”.
During this scene, Scout recognizes Mayella Ewell’s suspicious behavior, after she explains her side of the story. Scout uses a simile, comparing her to a cat, with a steady eye but a twitchy tail. Mayella’s steady eye may represent her effort to keep a straight face in attempts to not give away her lie, which she is forced into saying by her father. Although she appears to be stealthy and successful with her cover, Scout remarks that she also has a twitchy tail, which represents her nervousness. Despite her effective recital of the lie, Mayella is still cautious, knowing there are many more instances where she may unintentionally give away the true story. Through Scout’s observation of Mayella’s sneaky, yet uneasy behavior, Lee may be foreshadowing to the audience who do not yet know of the lie.
Page: 200 Paragraph: 19
As Mr. Gilmer questions Tom Robinson, he asks “You testified that you were resisting Miss Ewell. Were you so scared that she’d hurt you, you ran, a big buck like you?” and Robinson replies, “No suh, I’s scared I’d be in court, just like I am now.” Gilmer continues the trial by asking, “Scared of arrest, scared you’d have to face up to what you did?” “No suh, scared I’d hafta face up to what I didn’t do.”
Mr. Gilmer questions Tom Robinson for running so quick if he said he did nothing wrong. Robinson replies that he ran for fear of being punished, even if he was innocent, because of his race. I chose this passage because it depicts the feelings of the African Americans at that time. They were always scared of anything they did and said in front of the whites. Even if they did nothing wrong, the Africans would still be punished for it because they are a certain race. Lee describes a great purpose in Tom Robinson’s statements, it illustrates the fear of arrest even if innocent that all African Americans felt at that time.
“If you tell the truth, you don’t have to remember anything”
Page: 264 Paragraph: 1 & 2
Believing he had found a suspicious piece of information in Tom’s story, Mr. Gilmer asked him, “You’re a mighty good fellow, it seems-did all this for not one penny”. Robinson then honestly replied, “Yes, suh. I felt right sorry for her, she seemed to try more’n the rest of ’em-” and was cut off by Mr. Gilmer’s shocked response, “You felt sorry for her, you felt sorry for her” .
Mr. Gilmer, Mayella’s defendant interprets Tom Robinson’s honest reply as an insult. Generally, feeling sorry for someone means you pity them or believe they are worse off than you. Although Tom felt sorry for Mayella, his kind gesture was taken as an offense, digging him into a deeper hole than he already was. Mr. Gilmer’s repetition of ‘you felt sorry for her’ emphasizes how shocked he was, and intensifies the unintentional mistake Tom made. Mr. Gilmer most probably understood that Robinson spoke with kind intents, but to make him look bad, he made his response appear much worse than it really was. Had he not repeated the statement and intensified the situation, Tom’s innocent reply would have most likely been unnoticed. The author’s intention of this passage may have been to show how during this time period, in racially-divided Maycomb, for a colored man to look down upon a white man was an extreme affront.
This quote basically says how telling the truth can be much easier than lying. When people lie, they must think about their situation which results in constant hesitation. In addition, they must also think about their answer, so that they do not tell the truth accidentally. As a result, they must remember everything they say in order to keep the lie realistic and not contradict themselves. In connection to the book, as Mayella was questioned, she constantly stopped and hesitated to answer. This shows that she was obviously lying. This adds onto the theme about how bravery is shown when facing problems with honesty and taking action despite knowing the outcome.
Page: 183 Paragraph: 11
As Mayella hesitates to answer the question, she “looks[ed] at her father, who was sitting with his chair tipped against the railing”. Noticing this, “he sat up straight and waited for her to answer”.
This shows how Mayella is being cautious when answering the questions and how Mr. Ewell expects her to lie about what had really happened. Mayella must choose between telling the truth about her father, stop his abuse, however ruining her reputation as a white woman, or to lie to save her reputation, lose her only friend, and continue to be abused by her father. Being afraid to be judged by others, Mayella chooses her reputation over her well being and Tom Robinson’s life. This further reveals how Mayella fears the judgment of others, as well as the outcome of her actions. This contradicts Lee’s message to readers that bravery is shown when people take action based on what they believe is right, despite the consequences.