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BONDING

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by

Angela Barker

on 16 November 2015

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Transcript of BONDING

Covalent Bonds
Formed when electrons are shared between atoms
Occur between nonmetal atoms
Ionic Bonds
Form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another - result in ions
Occur between metal and nonmetal atoms
BONDING
Share electrons
Are poor conductors of electricity
Have low melting points

Chemical Bonds
Most atoms do not exist by themselves
Atoms lose, gain, or share electrons to have a filled outer energy level
Octet/Duet Rule: atoms bond to achieve 8 (2) ve-
Attractive forces that hold atoms of different elements together
Compounds forming Covalent Bonds
An atom that gains or loses electrons to achieve a full outer energy level
The number of electrons does not equal the number of protons
Metals lose electrons and form positive ions -
cations
Nonmetals gain electrons and form negative ions -
anions
Predictable Ions
Elements in the following groups form predictable ions
Gr. 1 = +1 ions Gr. 15 = -3 ions
Gr. 2 = +2 ions Gr. 16 = -2 ions
Gr. 13 = +3 ions Gr. 17 = -1 ions
Ion
Naming Ionic Compounds
Cation named first - element name
Anion named second - root of element name plus -ide ending
Examples
1. LiCl

2. BeF

3. Al O

4. Ca P

5. NaBr

6. K S
2
3
2
3
2
2
Writing Formulas Ionic Compounds
Determine the charge on the cation and anion
Use principle of charge balance (net charge on compound is zero) to write formula
Examples
1. sodium chloride

2. lithium oxide

3. beryllium fluoride

4. aluminum sellenide

5. strontium arsenide
Naming Covalent Compounds
Numerical prefixes are used to denote how many atoms of each element there are
First nonmetal gets prefix + name of element
Second nonmetal gets prefix + root name of element with -ide ending
Numerical Prefixes
1 = mono 6 = hexa
2 = di 7 = hepta
3 = tri 8 = octa
4 = tetra 9 = nona
5 = penta 10 = deca
Examples
1. N O

2. BF

3. P S

4. As Cl
Never use mono- on the first element
2
5
3
7
4
2
6
Writing Formulas Covalent Compounds
Write the element symbols for each nonmetal
Put a subscript after each element based on the prefix used
Examples
1. carbon dioxide

2. trisilicon heptacarbide

3. pentaiodine octafluoride

4. nonabromine monophosphide
Compounds forming Ionic Bonds
Transfer electrons
Are good conductors of electricity
Have high melting points
Full transcript