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Transcript of Social Influence
Last class we ended with the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). What can you tell me about the model?
Social influence - thoughts, action and feelings are affected by something external.
How did the gym people influence Chandler and Ross in the video?
Dr. Robert Cialdini - professor at Arizona State University. Developed the six principles of influence.
How it works:
no one wants to look like a mooch, so people generally tend to give back to those that have done a favor for them.
Example: address mailing labels from charitable organizations. Including a 'free gift' increases response by 35%
This rule has a tendency to force univited debts.
Other examples of this?
What is the catch?
The rule can trigger unequal exchanges - example coke study.
Reciprocal exchanges: door-in-face effect. One offer is made and when that is denied a second, lesser offer is made. Since the seller already made one consession by lowering the offer, the reciprocity rule is triggered.
Universal rule - most cultures follow reciprocity
So, if you needed someone to help you move, how would you use reciprocity to get compliance?
How it works: Typically people like to appear consistent, so commitment is the key and then people will comply to be consistent.
Low-ball technique - get someone to commit and then retreat initial offer for less attractive one.
Foot-in-door technique - get someone to comply with a small request then ask them for a larger request.
Examples of these two techniques?
Freedman and Fraiser study (1966).
How might fraternities and sororities use this tactic on members?
How it works: people look to others to see how to behave, especially in ambiguous situations.
Examples of how this is used as influence?
How it works: we tend to comply with people we like.
How is someone liked?
Research shows that people that are physically attractive are generally rated with more favorable terms (honest, caring, etc). Also, these people tend to get hired for a job more often.
Research has shown that people are typically more likely to help someone that dresses similarly. Also, people rate those with similar backgrounds and interests more favorably.
Praise causes more liking
Contact and cooperation
Remember the mere exposure effect? People are also liked just by repeated exposure
Examples of how advertising tries to use liking?
How it works: people generally tend to listen to someone in authority. Best example: doctors.
Milgram study - perfect example of obedience to authority
Establishing authority? Titles, clothes, traps.
How is this influence tactic employed?
4 out of 5 dentists recommend trident.
How it works: things seem more valuable if they are less available.
Limited number tactic - advertisers tell you there are only a few items left
Time limit - for the next 15 minutes, you can get this special price
Best example: black friday, both limited quantites and times to get the deals
So, imagine you are a waiter...how would you employ these influence tactics to try and increase your tips?