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CH 5 Axial Skeleton Notes

Axial Skeleton
by

Lori Richardson

on 20 December 2016

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Transcript of CH 5 Axial Skeleton Notes

Chapter 5
Axial Skeleton
80 bones in the
axial skeleton
28 in skull
26 vertebral column
8 cranium
14 facial
6 middle ear
1 hyoid bone
25 thoracic cage
The Skull
Cranium
Attached by sutures
Frontal Bone
Forehead
Parietal Bone
Sagital Suture
Coronal Suture
Temporal Bone
Squamous Suture
External Acoustic Meatus
Styloid Process
Neck muscle attachment
Zygomatic Process
Mastoid Process
Neck muscle attachment
Sphenoid Bone
Ethmoid Bone
Frontal Bone
Sphenoid Bond
Allows fibers of the cranial nerve to pass
Sella Turcia
Holds the pituitary gland
Foramen Ovale
Occipital Bone
Parietal Bone
Jugular Foramen
Allows passage of the jugular vein
Temporal Bone
Internal Acoustic Meatus
Allows passage of Auditory Nerve
Foramen Magnum (“large hole”)
Spinal cord passage
Facial Bones
Maxillae
“Keystone” bones of the face
All bones except mandible join the maxillae
Carry the upper and lower teeth
Alveolar Processes
Hard plate of mouth
Palatine Processes
Palatine Bones
Failure to fuse results in cleft palate
Cheekbones
Form good-sized portion of the lateral walls of the eye sockets
Zygomatic Bones
Groove that serves as passageway for tears
Lacrimal Bones
forms the bridge of the nose
Nasal Bones
Vomer means “plow”
Forms nasal septum
Vomer Bone
Vomer Bone
Inferior Nasal Conchae
Largest and strongest bone of the face
Only freely moveable joint in the skull
Mandible
Teeth...The Big Mystery
Turns out, teeth are not considered bone because they are not made of living tissue. Teeth are also made up of different types of minerals then bones are. Teeth have enamel which is covered in dentine, a specialized tissue that encases the calcium.
Maxilla
Zygomatic Bone
Temporal Bone
Styloid Process
Mastoid Process
Zygomatic Process
Parietal Bone
Occipital Bone
Foramen Magnum
Occipital Condyle
Jugular Foramen
Carotid Canal
Sphenoid Bone
Hyoid Bone
Not part of the skull
Suspended in the mid-neck region
Anchored by ligaments to the styloid processes of the temporal bones
Moveable base for the tongue
Attachment point for neck muscles that lower and raise the larynx
Vertebral Column
Formed from 26 irregular bones

At birth the spine consists of 33 separate bones

9 of these eventually fuse to form the sacrum and the coccyx

Vertebrae are separated by pads of flexible fibrocartilage called intervertebral discs
Cushion the vertebrae
Absorb shocks
Allows for flexibility
C1 is known as the atlas
Allows you to nod “yes”
Has no body
C2 is known as the axis
Allows you to rotate your head side to side
C3 to C7
“Typical” cervical vertebrae
Smallest and lightest vertebrae
Larger than cervical vertebrae
Body is somewhat heart shaped
Spinous process is long and hooks sharplydownward
Massive, block-like bodies
Short, hatchet shaped spinous processes
Most of the stress of the vertebral column
Formed by the fusion of five vertebrae
Forms the posterior wall of the pelvis
Formed by the fusion of three to five tiny,irregularly shaped vertebrae
Human “tailbone”
Disclike, weight-bearing part
Faces anteriorly
Formed from joining laminae and pedicles
Canal through which the spinal cord passes
Single projection arising from posterior vertebral arch
Allows vertebrae to form joints withadjacent vertebrae
Typical Vertebra
Sternum
Jugular Notch
Clavicular Notch
Manubrium
Sternal Angle
Body
Xiphisternal Joint
Xiphoid Process
Intercostal
Spaces

Bony Thorax
Costal
Cartilage

True Ribs
1-7

False Ribs
8-12

Floating Ribs
11-12

Occipital Bone
Lambdoid Suture
Lacrimal Bone
Nasal Bone
Zygomatic Bone
Maxilla Bone
Mandible
Mental Foramen
Mandibular
Ramus
Alveolar Processes
Optic Canal
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