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CH 5 Axial Skeleton Notes

Axial Skeleton

Lori Richardson

on 2 January 2014

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Transcript of CH 5 Axial Skeleton Notes

Chapter 5
Axial Skeleton 80 bones in the
axial skeleton 28 in skull 26 vertebral column 8 cranium
14 facial
6 middle ear
1 hyoid bone 25 thoracic cage The Skull Cranium Attached by sutures Frontal Bone Forehead Parietal Bone Sagital Suture Coronal Suture Temporal Bone Squamous Suture External Acoustic Meatus Styloid Process Neck muscle attachment Zygomatic Process Mastoid Process Neck muscle attachment Sphenoid Bone Ethmoid Bone Frontal Bone Sphenoid Bond Allows fibers of the cranial nerve to pass Sella Turcia Holds the pituitary gland Foramen Ovale Occipital Bone Parietal Bone Jugular Foramen Allows passage of the jugular vein Temporal Bone Internal Acoustic Meatus Allows passage of Auditory Nerve Foramen Magnum (“large hole”) Spinal cord passage Facial Bones Maxillae “Keystone” bones of the face
All bones except mandible join the maxillae Carry the upper and lower teeth Alveolar Processes Hard plate of mouth Palatine Processes Palatine Bones Failure to fuse results in cleft palate Cheekbones
Form good-sized portion of the lateral walls of the eye sockets Zygomatic Bones Groove that serves as passageway for tears Lacrimal Bones forms the bridge of the nose Nasal Bones Vomer means “plow”
Forms nasal septum Vomer Bone Vomer Bone Inferior Nasal Conchae Largest and strongest bone of the face
Only freely moveable joint in the skull Mandible Teeth...The Big Mystery Turns out, teeth are not considered bone because they are not made of living tissue. Teeth are also made up of different types of minerals then bones are. Teeth have enamel which is covered in dentine, a specialized tissue that encases the calcium. Maxilla Zygomatic Bone Temporal Bone Styloid Process Mastoid Process Zygomatic Process Parietal Bone Occipital Bone Foramen Magnum Occipital Condyle Jugular Foramen Carotid Canal Sphenoid Bone Hyoid Bone Not part of the skull
Suspended in the mid-neck region
Anchored by ligaments to the styloid processes of the temporal bones
Moveable base for the tongue
Attachment point for neck muscles that lower and raise the larynx Vertebral Column Formed from 26 irregular bones

At birth the spine consists of 33 separate bones

9 of these eventually fuse to form the sacrum and the coccyx

Vertebrae are separated by pads of flexible fibrocartilage called intervertebral discs Cushion the vertebrae
Absorb shocks
Allows for flexibility C1 is known as the atlas
Allows you to nod “yes”
Has no body
C2 is known as the axis
Allows you to rotate your head side to side
C3 to C7
“Typical” cervical vertebrae
Smallest and lightest vertebrae Larger than cervical vertebrae
Body is somewhat heart shaped
Spinous process is long and hooks sharplydownward Massive, block-like bodies
Short, hatchet shaped spinous processes
Most of the stress of the vertebral column Formed by the fusion of five vertebrae
Forms the posterior wall of the pelvis Formed by the fusion of three to five tiny,irregularly shaped vertebrae
Human “tailbone” Disclike, weight-bearing part
Faces anteriorly Formed from joining laminae and pedicles Canal through which the spinal cord passes Single projection arising from posterior vertebral arch Allows vertebrae to form joints withadjacent vertebrae Typical Vertebra Sternum Jugular Notch Clavicular Notch Manubrium Sternal Angle Body Xiphisternal Joint Xiphoid Process Intercostal
Spaces Bony Thorax Costal
Cartilage True Ribs
1-7 False Ribs
8-12 Floating Ribs
11-12 Occipital Bone Lambdoid Suture Lacrimal Bone Nasal Bone Zygomatic Bone Maxilla Bone Mandible Mental Foramen Mandibular
Ramus Alveolar Processes Optic Canal
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